China has a long history and crafts are emerging in an endless stream.The following products are most representative.
Chinese ceramics is the treasure of Chinese culture Treasury, is the most rich national characteristics of daily crafts.With the development of Chinese history, foreign economic and cultural exchanges, ceramic art spread to the world, many countries porcelain craft development is directly or indirectly affected by the Chinese ceramic craft.Ceramics and tea, silk and known as China’s three specialties and famous at home and abroad.
2,Tang tri-colored glazed pottery
Tri-colored glazed pottery of the tang dynasty is a kind of pottery popular in the tang dynasty, with yellow, brown and green as the basic glaze color. Later people used to call this kind of pottery “tri-colored glazed pottery of the tang dynasty”.Tri-colored glazed pottery of the tang dynasty originated in xi ‘an, luoyang and yangzhou.
There are two main types of enamelware. One is the enamelware with corded wire and copper foils from Persia.Since then, cloisonne has become the name for copper – feted wire – cutting enamel ware.
The other is the art of painting enamel from Europe, which was introduced to China during the reign of emperor kangxi in the qing dynasty.
Enamel color porcelain is in the emperor kangxi personally inspired by the creation of a new variety, because imitation in copper painting enamel ware, so enamel color also known as porcelain painting enamel.Enamel color porcelain production is different from other porcelain, first by jingdezhen royal kiln factory produced quality plain tires, sent to the palace, then by the palace painter painting, and finally by the qing palace office of the enamel workshop for the second firing.
Enamel color production and development mainly in the kangyonggan three dynasties, is a very rare imperial palace, the past commonly known as “ancient yuexuan” porcelain.
4, Coloured glaze
Coloured glaze, “take stone as qualitative, with saltpetre and it.Reefs are wrought with iron, copper, iron, lead and lead.No stone without some glass.Non – copper red lead is not fine, and then sanhe.It is in this way that fire is born, and its mystery also comes from the baptism of fire.The crafts is beyond the reach of ordinary materials.Of coloured glaze art bizarre, transparent, limpid.
Coloured glaze is a kind of ancient Chinese law material since ancient times has been used by the royal family, the user has extremely strict level requirements, so the civil is very rare.
Colored glaze is known as the first of China’s five famous vessels (gold and silver, jade jade, colored glaze, ceramics, bronze) and one of the seven treasures of Buddhism.”Bright make” carry: the adornment that the emperor awards to bestow number one scholar is medicine jade, 4 goods above ability have.
During the reign of emperor guangxu of the qing dynasty, more than 7,000 carryels of glass products were exported to foreign countries every year, with dozens of kinds of products, such as qing, jade, screen, chess pieces, rosary beads, fish bottles, hairpins, gourds, inkstones and buddhist eyes.Some of the beads were exported to southeast Asian countries, and some were also exported to North America, where they were popular with the indians.
Decorative techniques are mostly carved, painted, gilt and enamel, representative works are wrapped silk glass bottles.Due to the unique Chinese style and exquisite crafts, the glassware of the qing dynasty was greatly appreciated by people from all over the world.
Some of the largest museums in Europe and North America have collections of Chinese court glassware from the qing dynasty, especially from the qianlong period.
6, Silk person
Silk figure is a traditional national crafts of our country, which is shaped by silk. The whole body of the figure is made of top to bottom clothes, cloth and silk flowers on the head, palace lanterns and silk fans are all made of fine silk, silk yarn and silk.So silk production of raw materials is very elegant.
Most of the silk figure works are based on the ancient handmaidens, dramatic figures and folk dances in Chinese folk stories.Therefore, it has extremely strong traditional style and national style.
7, Chinese knot art
Chinese knot art is a unique folk craft knitting art in China. With its unique Oriental charm and colorful changes, it fully embodies the wisdom and profound cultural deposits of the Chinese people.
Every knot is made of a piece of silk thread from beginning to end, and every basic knot is named according to its shape and meaning.The knot that ACTS the role of different is united in wedlock each other together, or with other the decorations collocation combination that has auspicious design, formed modelling distinctive, flowery and colorful, implied meaning is deep, the Chinese tradition with rich connotation is lucky adornment article.
Such as “ji qing yu”, “fushou shuangquan”, “shuangxi linmen”, “jixiang ruyi”, “yilu fengshun” and other combinations, are warm and strong good wishes, praise and convey heartfelt prayer and wish of the good work.
8, the paper-cut
Paper cutting is one of the most popular folk arts in China, often used in religious ceremonies, decorative arts and plastic arts.Paper cutting art generally has symbolic meaning and is also part of this ritual.
In addition, paper cutting is also used as an ornament for offering sacrifices to ancestors and gods.Meet New Year festival or newly-married festival, people sticks beautiful and bright-coloured paper-cut on wall, window, door paper, wall flower, ceiling flower, lantern, festal atmosphere is rendered very full-bodied festival.Paper cutting itself can also be given as a gift to others.There are two common methods of paper cutting: scissors and scissors.
In ancient China, bronze ware was mostly referred to from the late shang dynasty to the early western zhou dynasty, which was the heyday of the development of bronze ware.Later, bronze began to thin body, decorative gradually simplified.
There is no place in the world where bronze wares can be compared with ancient Chinese ones in terms of scale of use, casting techniques, plastic arts and varieties.This is also one of the reasons why ancient Chinese bronze ware occupies a unique position in the history of world art and has aroused universal attention.
Jade has a long history and unique meaning.Jade, containing the ancient people’s endless pursuit of ideals and spiritual yearning, through the ages, people put all the beautiful things to jade.
The ancients said, “if the jade is not cut, it will not become a valuable tool.” its original meaning is to say that the jade can become a valuable treasure after processing.
This kind of precious metal has magical power, it is scarce, precious, value is stable, it is the symbol of wealth and status, it is the target that people pursues all the time and position is long flourishing.Owning gold is equivalent to owning wealth, which is determined by the unique characteristics of gold. The luxury of gold makes people use it as a jewelry decoration.
Silver is a precious metal with moderate hardness, ductility, easy to be hammered into shape, bright natural color and not easy to be oxidized or discolorated. It is a good material for making crafts.Silver articles are often hidden in folk households.
Pearl is representing satisfactory and auspicious, use pearl to act the role ofing to be able to reflect elegant ethical amorous feelings, let a person appear very high and easy.
14, Potted plants made of jade and jewelry
Some bonsai top red fruit with coral beads system, narcissus is white jade flowers, sapphire do leaves.Rubies and pearls for lace, the center of the peakstone mountain.The pines with pearls set in golden thread and the longevity stones and ganoderma with rubies set in golden thread.Peach to hibiscus stone, tourmaline, wax and other red, pink gem production.Chinese rose with copper branches and leaves, branches gilded, leaves dot blue, with color materials, coral petals, hibiscus stone flower buds.Panoramic meaning vivid, quite xiao zhenhua.
This kind of bonsai is used in the palace queen birthday display treasures or the birthday of the emperor’s birthday by the officials.
15, Filament Mosaic
Filigree inlaying is a traditional crafts in China. It processes precious metals such as gold and silver into fine wires and shapes them with techniques such as base pushing, wire pinching and weaving. It also inlays patterns on the filigree and then inlays beautiful colored beads, jade and gemstones or collocates with cloisonne craft.
Filament Mosaic is a traditional palace art, its process is complex and cumbersome, the big process on the points of pinch, fill, save, welding, piling, piling, weaving, weaving eight.A good work is not one person can make, need every process on the level of workers are very high.
16, bone carving
There is a long history of bone carving. The ancients sharpened the bone into needles and knives and carved words and patterns on the bones.Bone carving is a very exquisite crafts, through the different knife carving out of the three-dimensional figures, flowers and birds and so on.
Choose high grade pure natural horn makings, its quality of a material is exquisite, colour and lustre is natural, carve finely, magical form beauty, give a person with distinctive primitive simplicity, natural beauty.Exquisite sculpture art, with a strong central plains cultural style and regional characteristics.
17, Ivory carving
Ivory carving is a crafts carved with ivory and the teeth of other animals. Its techniques are basically the same as those of bamboo carving and wood carving.
The shape of the objects to the penholder, arm shelf, penholder, screen and so on.Ivory carving technology has a long history in China. During the Ming and qing dynasties, due to the expansion of economic and cultural exchanges across South Asia and Africa, ivory raw materials were also introduced into China. With Beijing, yangzhou and guangzhou as the center, China’s unique ivory carving transmission technology was developed.
There are many kinds of ivory carvings in the qing dynasty, ranging from fan bones, incense, flower arrangement and pen container, to bonsai with flowers, landscape figures, giant dragon boats and even a screen.Carved ivory works of art, solid and fine, soft and smooth, are highly prized by connoisseurs.
Egg carving is a set of art, calligraphy, sculpture and many other techniques and one of the art.The design and creation of egg carving is totally different from other carving because of the limitation of the eggshell and its fragile texture.The author is required to have a solid foundation of fine arts and sculpture, steady hand, under the knife.Especially in the critical point of the work, a little careless will be wasted, a few days of the heart is also lost.
As an alternative art in the field of craft carving, egg carving is completely different from other kinds of carving in terms of design concept and creation techniques. Every piece of work can only succeed after many failures.
19, shell carving
Shell carving is the choice of these colored shells, skillfully with its natural color and texture, shape, cut, grinding, polishing, stacking, paste and other processes carefully carved into flat paste, semi-relief, Mosaic, three-dimensional and other forms and specifications of crafts.
20, rhino horn carving
Rhinoceros horn from the south Tibetan Tibet, yunnan also have.Grain such as roe, said of corn;Millet grain has an eye in, call millet eye.All vessels should be moistened, corn grain blossoms good.
Carved rhinoceros horn Ming and qing dynasties, as a result of the development of arts and crafts by leaps and bounds, carving technology has reached a new peak, exquisite carving art extended to the horn material, so that many shapes, different patterns of rhinoceros horn cup stand out, famous in the world.
Ming dynasty carved rhino horn products are very eye-catching.Carver artists use the shape of the tip of the horn flat bottom, carved into different patterns of cups, jugs and other wine.
There are circular, relief, engraving or several techniques.Some are painted to protect the wood and beautify.Generally choose the texture of fine tenacious, not easy to deformation of the tree species such as nanmu, rosewood, camphor, cypress, ginkgo, agarwood, rosewood, longan and other architectural decoration wood carving, there are many folk legends, opera, historical stories as the theme of the works;
Appreciation sex woodcarving pays attention to the aesthetic feeling that develops woodiness itself, form spends potential, because material is satisfied, become the artwork that people loves.Door window, hang piece, beautiful board, screen, bright qing dynasty furniture, wall hang, figure of Buddha, picture frame wait for of all kinds sculpture wood art to taste exquisite work, do not lose classic lasting appeal again with distinctive feature.
Lacquerware is bright, clean, washable, light weight, heat insulation, corrosion resistance, inlaid and painted in a variety of colours, usually in black or black, forming a colourful world on the surface of the object with beautiful patterns.
The han dynasty was the heyday of lacquer ware.The variety of lacquerware added boxes, plates, cases, earrings, dishes, bowls, baskets, boxes, feet, spit POTS, masks, chessboards, stools, danger, several, etc. At the same time, new techniques were also created, such as colorful needle carving, copper buckle, gold plate, hawksbill plate, inlay, pile paint and many other decorative techniques.
23, nuclear carving
Nuclear carving is a traditional Chinese folk craft, using guangdong’s “wuhang” olive stone, carved on it a variety of fine figure pictures, since the Ming and qing dynasties, to the collection of lovers love for the past dynasties.
Ming dynasty notes writer Wei Xue the nuclear boat, and describes the artist Wang Shuyuan creation “su dongpo boating on red cliff”, is “have no surplus” “olive nuclear carved on a boat, a small boat with su dongpo, LuZhi, fo Yin, the boatman and child son five characters, different expression, decoration and furnishing articles are on board, character folds floating, 4 times the size of a grain of ship window can open easily, surprise.
China is the world’s earliest use of bamboo products, so bamboo carving in China has a long history.Bamboo carving, also known as bamboo carving, is to carve a variety of decorative patterns and text on the bamboo ware, or carved with bamboo roots into a variety of furnishings.Bamboo carving became an art until the tang dynasty.
25, the cane makes up
Rattan weaving is a traditional practical crafts.All sorts of household utensils and furniture that use mountain cane to braid.Main producing area guangdong, see at the place such as jiang men, zhongshan, foshan more, history is long.
Rattan weaving this local specialty is not only a very good living appliances, but also a strange production and even war equipment.There is a record about “rattan jia jun” in The Three Kingdoms annals. The so-called “rattan jia” is the wardress woven by rattan, “crossing the river is not heavy, neither the sword nor the arrow can enter through the water is not wet”.
There are many kinds of straw weaving, rich resources and different designs and colors, forming the characteristics of different nationalities.There are mainly traditional grain grass, wheat straw, palm silk and other woven.There are hundreds of designs and patterns such as straw curtain, straw mat, straw basket, straw fan, straw mat and straw toy.It is a kind of grass basket only, multicolored, modelling diversity, let a person dazzling.
The crafts natural willow hand weaves but becomes, the natural environmental protection.Wicker peeling, smooth surface, fresh color, soft and solid, is the folk crafts weaving willow bucket, willow basket, willow dustpan and other production, living supplies materials.
28, blowing sugar man
Blowing sugar figurine is a traditional folk craft, which integrates art, food and toys into one. It is very popular among children, and most of its crafts are passed down from generation to generation by artists.Usually artists carry on the back of the box, walking through the streets, while doing business.
Legend “blowing sugar figure” ancestor is liu bowen.Legend of zhu yuanzhang to the throne can be handed down from generation to generation, on the creation of “cabinet” fire heroes.Liu bowen got away with it, and was rescued by an old man who carried a burden of sugar. They exchanged clothes, and from then on, liu bowen went from street to street carrying a burden and “blowing sugar man”.
The “sugar blowing figure” mainly USES caramel brewed by the artist and the caramel body is brown.The main ingredient of caramel is starch.Art designers have their own unique formula and stewing method, the whole process is all a matter of experience to judge, the caramel when heated to a suitable temperature, pulling down a ball and knead into a ball, with your index finger with a deep pit, and a small amount of starch pressure outside the tightening, quickly pull out, to a certain fineness, suddenly broken candy bar, at this point, the candy bar is like a thin tube, blow with the mouth shape immediately.The whole operation process must go through hard training, the technique must be accurate, the modelling must be succinct vivid.
29, clay figurine
The tianjin clay figurine zhang caisu art is exquisite, the influence far reaches the world each place, occupies the important position in our country folk art history.(the figure in the above “emperors of all dynasties” is a clay figurine zhang caisu)
The dough figurines are actually mo, small figures made of glutinous rice flour and colored dough.
It is mainly used in wedding gifts and funeral offerings, as well as birthday gifts, gifts to relatives and friends, prayers and festivals, etc.
Also known as silk embroidery, is one of China’s excellent traditional national crafts.According to “book of history” the chapter before record is in 4000 takes a system, stipulate “dress picture and dress embroider”;In the book of songs, there is also a description of “plain clothes with embroidery”.
The custom of advocating embroidered clothing in the song dynasty has gradually become popular among the people, which also promoted the development of Chinese silk embroidery technology.
Ming embroidery has become a very expressive art, has been known as the “four famous embroidery” su embroidery, yue embroidery, xiang embroidery, shu embroidery.The suzhou suzhou suzhou embroidery and the frontier silk are the most famous.
32, cloth art
Cloth art is the art on cloth, it is a magnificent wonderful work in Chinese folk craft, the cloth art of ancient China basically has embroider, carry, decal to wait.The ancient Chinese folk cloth art is mainly used for clothing, shoes and hats, bed curtains, bags, backpacks and other small decorations (such as headscarves, sachets, fan belts, purses, handkerchiefs, etc.), toys and so on.
Chinese cloth art has been handed down from generation to generation, pouring into people’s endless wisdom, with distinct artistic characteristics.
A fabric in which patterns are woven by jacquard and weaving techniques using dyed warp and weft threads.Chinese silk jacquard technology has a long history.Silk fabrics existed in China as early as the Yin and shang dynasties.In the zhou dynasty, brocade appeared in the silk fabrics, with brilliant patterns and perfect skills.
Han dynasty has a room, brocade department, specializing in weaving brocade, for the palace to enjoy.
During the zhenguan period of the tang dynasty, dou shilun’s shu brocade patterns, such as pheasant, sheep fighting and phoenix flying, were called the damask Yang pattern.In the weaving process, the warp and weft threads are changed from warp and weft threads to weft brocade, and the color warp and weft threads are changed from shallow to deep or from deep to shallow.
The imperial court of the northern song dynasty established a large-scale weaving workshop in bianjing and other places to produce various brocade brocade.
Batik is China’s ancient folk traditional textile printing and dyeing crafts, which is called wax in ancient times. Together with skein (tie-dye) and pinch (hollow-out printing), it is also known as China’s three ancient printing techniques.
Wax dyeing is to dip wax knife into wax painted flowers and then dye them with indigo. When the wax is removed, the cloth surface will show a variety of patterns of white flowers on a blue background or blue flowers on a white background.
Because the batik pattern is rich, the color is simple but elegant, the style is unique, USES in the manufacture clothing clothing and each kind of life real goods, appears simple and natural, fresh and pleasing to the eye, rich national characteristic.