Jade investment is the current hot spot, but some basic concepts need to be clear.
1,What are precious stones and jade?
In a broad sense, gemstones are the most beautiful and precious of stones.
It includes the narrow sense of gem and jade two categories.
In a narrow sense, gemstone refers to the single crystal mineral of naturally occurring simple substance (such as natural gold, diamond) or compound (such as crystal, red and blue treasure).
Jade is a polycrystalline rock composed of a single or multiple minerals.
2 ,What is emerald?
Jadeite is known as the king of jade. Jadeite is the jadeite. Its chemical composition is sodium aluminosilicate.
The structure is composed of numerous fine fibrous microcrystals interwoven into a dense aggregate with blanket structure.
Very tough, able to withstand quite high impact force and pressure, its products are durable.
The hardness of halcyon is moshi 6.5-7, specific gravity 3.3, vitreous burnish or pearl burnish, often show translucent, a few is transparent (call completely transparent “glass piece”), fracture irregular shape.
In China, baoyu known as yellow for fei, green for cui.Jadeite’s producing area mainly concentrates in Burma north mi ** mong gong area.
3, what is hetian jade?
Hetian jade refers to the oldest nephrite produced in hetian, xinjiang.Its chemical composition is calcium magnesium silicate, mineral composition is composed of amphibole special aggregate.
Mohs hardness 6-6.5, specific gravity 2.9-3.1, uneven fracture shape, grease luster, translucent to opaque, color white, green, yellow, black, red and so on.
The color on a piece of material is generally more unified, its chemical composition is more stable, can withstand strong acid, strong alkali, generally used to do jade carving and all kinds of small pendants and bracelets, it is also the main material of ancient jade products in China.
4, what is xiuyu?
Jade main origin of liaoning xiuyan county, in guangdong xinyi, sichuan hui li and other places also output.Xiuyu’s chemical composition is magnesium silicate containing water.
Mineral composition is a collection of snake and stone minerals, which is composed of fine fibrous and blade-like serpentine crystals, and is a very fine dense block.
It comes in a variety of colors, with light green and yellowish green not common.Its hardness is 2.5-4.5, specific gravity is about 2.5, grease luster or waxy luster;
Translucent to opaque, there are very few for transparent, and plexiglass more similar.
Jade due to the low yield of hardness is low grade jade material, often used to serve jade carving and all kinds of small hanging pieces, also do some tea, wine, fitness ball, jade pillow and other life products.
5, what is dushan jade?
Dushan jade is named because it was produced in dushan, 8 kilometers northeast of nanyang city, henan province.
Its mineral composition is the antigonite, belongs to the multi – color jade, its bright colors, patterns complete, light and shade, and texture is fine, dense and hard.
Mohs hardness 6-6.5, specific gravity 2.9;Glassy or greasy luster, opaque or slightly transparent.Dushan jade is commonly used in the market as a variety of jade ornaments.
6,What is agate?
Agate refers to chalcedony with striated structure, which is a colloidal mineral whose main component is silica.
Hardness is 6.5-7, specific gravity is 2.65, the fracture is shell-like, transparent to translucent, glass luster.
Agate qualitative pure person should be white, because contain coloured ion or other impurity, ability can appear gray, red, blue wait for color.
Natural agate after “burning red”, heat treatment can make light agate into bright red.Can also be quality white agate dyed into a variety of colors.
Agate market often made into bracelets, also do some small pendants and ornaments.Agate is mainly produced in Brazil. The main source of agate in China is fuxin city in liaoning province.
7, what is “hibiscus stone”?
Hibisma stone is a kind of pink translucent to transparent quartz block, also known as “rose quartz”, its chemical composition is mainly silica, in addition to showing pink, also have deep pink.
The hardness is 7, the specific gravity is about 2.65, the fracture is shell-like and shows grease luster.
Mainly used as necklaces, bracelets, and sometimes do some small pendants or ornaments such as chicken heart and eardrop, hibiscus stone mainly produced in Brazil, China’s main production areas in xinjiang, yunnan and other places.
8, what call “tiger eyeball stone”?
Tiger eyeball stone is called “wood turning stone” because of its similar appearance to wood.
It is from the mineral composition of sodium amphibole chrysotile, through the geological hydrothermal change appointment, hydrothermal silica gradually replaced the sodium amphibole, into silicified chrysotile, its composition into quartz, hardness of 7, specific gravity of 3.1.
Tiger eyeball stone can be divided into three categories according to color, yellow and yellow-brown and have the effect of the cat’s eye called tiger eyeball stone, blue tone.
Cat eye effect is known as eagle stone, brown and blue spots mixed together as banba tiger eyeball stone.
Tiger eyeball stone market is mainly used as necklace beads and bracelet beads, the main origin in Brazil and Australia.
9,What is dongling jade?
Dongling jade in geology, known as chromium-mica quartzite, hardness 7, specific gravity 2.65, brittle, translucent, uneven fracture.
According to its color can be divided into green dongling stone, blue dongling stone and red dongling jade.Dongling jade mainly produced in India, also known as India jade.
Commonly make necklace bead and bracelet bead, small hang adorn article, also have make put pieces.
10, What is venusite?
Venusite, also known as gold ore or gold ore blende, is a kind of quartzite containing mica or iron oxide mineral flakes, due to the shining light of Venus.
Commonly used on the market for its bracelet beads, necklace beads, or as a seal material.
11,What is crystal?
Crystal is a kind of narrow sense gem, is a very old gem.Its chemical composition is silica.
This is a crystal as transparent as water in quartz minerals.
If purple, tawny or black is formed due to impurities, it is called amethyst, tea crystal and ink crystal respectively.
Special varieties containing acicular or fibrous mineral inclusions are called “hair crystals”.Crystal surface is glass luster, its shell – like fracture grease luster;
Hardness 7, specific gravity 2.66, and has compression and optical properties.Crystal has a wide range of USES, mainly used in jewelry bracelet and necklace beads, also do some small pendants and ornaments.
The crystal is mainly produced in Brazil and Uruguay. The main production areas in China are yangjiao ling in hainan province and donghai in jiangsu province.
Natural crystal is clear and transparent, often containing star-point, cloud or flocculent air-liquid inclusions, and often see microcracks.
Synthetic crystals have no cracks, but often have small bubbles.In addition, the weight of synthetic crystals can be felt in your hands than natural crystals.
Compared with glass, crystal white and more bright dazzling, glass white in a slight suffused cyan, yellow and feeling bright enough;
Crystal hardness is 7, glass is 5.5, can use crystal delimit glass, natural crystal often contains the uneven such as cotton grain, imperfect phenomenon.
And glass because of artificial baking, uniform and no cotton lines, and there are small bubbles, lapping crystal with a cool feeling, glass has a warm feeling.
12,What is a pearl?
Pearl is a round pearl body formed by rubbing and stimulating the extraneous substances put into (or artificially put into) the body of some shellfish in the sea or fresh water.
Its chemical composition is mainly calcium carbonate, pearls can be divided into seawater pearls, freshwater pearls and artificially cultivated pearls according to the production.
By color can be divided into texture base color for white beads, texture base for black beads, variegated beads.
13,What is a diamond?
It is customary to call the diamond of gem grade diamond.It is a crystal mineral formed by the crystallization of a single carbon element under special circumstances, and it is also the only gem mineral composed of a single element.
Gemstones and diamonds (diamonds) are not only hard (mohs hardness 10, more than 1100 times of quartz), with extremely high wear resistance and chemical stability;
Strong luster, not easy to wear after processing, can shine diamond luster for a long time;
It also has a high refractive index (2.42) and a strong dispersion (0.044, the strongest among natural colorless gems).
When the diamond is polished into dozens of small surface, shot into the white light of the diamond, in the refraction process is scattered into monochromatic light, show the luster of the seven-color neon, showing brilliant and glittering and translucent optical effect like water.
This strong dispersion phenomenon is the most precious characteristic of diamonds, which is unmatched by any other precious jade.Therefore, it is known as the “king of gems”.
Diamond mainly produced in South Africa, Australia, Zaire, Botswana, mainly used for making diamond rings, necklaces, earrings, corsages and other ornaments.
14,What are Rubies and sapphires?
Rubies and sapphires are beautiful and transparent corundum. Their chemical composition is aluminum oxide, which should be colorless when pure.
Many contain trace amounts of pigment ions and appear in different colors, such as red with chromium – ruby, blue with titanium and iron – sapphire.
Red and blue treasures are transparent to translucent, glass luster, under the dichroism mirror has obvious polychromatism, hardness is 9, specific gravity is 4;Conchoidal fracture without cleavage;
Under ultraviolet light, rubies have distinct red fluorescence.Sapphires do not fluoresce except in some species in Sri Lanka and Kashmir.
The major ruby producing countries in the world are myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and the major sapphire producing countries are Australia, Thailand, myanmar, Sri Lanka and China.
Red blue treasure is often used as ring face, female corsages, earrings, tie clips and other high-grade jewelry.
15,What is “emerald”?
Emerald refers to the emerald beryl containing chromium, the chemical composition is aluminum silicate beryllium, the crystal is hexagonal columnar, belongs to the hexagonal crystal system.
It is emerald green or thick green, with a specific gravity of 2.6-2.8, hardness of 7.5-8, brittle and easy to break;Transparent, glassy.
Beautiful in color, transparent and hard, it is the most valuable characteristic of emerald.Its main production areas are Colombia and the former Soviet union.Emeralds are often used as ornaments such as ring face, ear studs and corsages.
16,What is “opal”?
The so-called “opal stone” in gemology refers to the gemstone with the effect of cat’s eye.
And any other gem mineral with cat’s eye effect can not be called “cat’s eye” in general, but must be preceded by a mineral name, such as “emerald cat’s eye” or “quartz cat’s eye”.
The chemical composition of the gemstone is beryllium aluminate, and the crystal is columnar or plate-like, which can be brown-yellow, greenish-yellow and other varieties.
Glass luster, hardness 8.5, specific gravity 4.73;Conchoidal fracture with white stripes.
When it has a dense array of oriented fibrous and acicular mineral inclusions or tubular holes in its interior, the cat eye effect results in a bright band like the pupil of a cat’s eye due to the reflection of light.
This band of light moves across the surface of the gem as it is rotated, so it is also known as “play colour”, which is the most important feature of opal.
Opal is often used as ring face, the best opal from the east of Sri Lanka.
17,What is “K gold”?
Jewelry made of pure gold is too soft to be set into a variety of fine designs.
It is especially easy to lose when setting pearls, precious stones and emeralds. Therefore, since ancient times, people have known to add a small amount of silver, copper, zinc and other metals in pure gold to increase the strength and toughness of gold.
To determine the pure gold content of gold is called “gold position”, which is karat in English and generally translated as “open”, or “K” in English.
Therefore, ornaments are also known as “K” gold.Generally, pure gold is called 24K, which means the theoretical gold content is 100%. Therefore, 1K means the pure gold content of gold jewelry accounts for 1/24, about 4.16%.
Our country consumes habit to use 24K, 18K commonly, and in euramerican a few countries commonly use 14K or 12K gold to inlay gem headgear.
18,What are “gold jewelry” and “platinum jewelry”?
All jewelry crafts made entirely of gold and part of gold can be called “gold jewelry”, and gold ornaments made of the precious metal “platinum” are called “platinum jewelry”.
Because platinum is more dispersed in the earth’s crust than gold, it is difficult to extract, so platinum jewelry is more expensive than gold jewelry
19,what is amber?
Species and evaluation of amber.According to the different colors and characteristics of amber in China, the species are divided into golden pearl, blood pearl, insect pearl, fragrant pearl, ling pearl, stone pearl, flower pearl, water pearl, bright pearl, wax pearl, honey wax and red turbine-resin, among which golden pearl is precious and high quality amber.
Amber is now of little value unless it is antique, exquisite artwork or contains biological remains.
The economic value of amber depends on the clarity, shape, size and color of the insect.Strong color and no impurity is preferred.
The best colors are green and transparent red.The most valuable species is the amber wrapped with insects, commonly known as “amber bee”, with insects clear, lifelike, individual large, the number of the best.
It is used to make beads, buddhist beads, carvings, cigarette boxes, sanitary incense and so on.
Friendship reference: painting