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Chinese arts and crafts are of various kinds and materials. Through historical and cultural infiltration and accumulation, they contain rich cultural information.Here are ten of the most auspicious crafts.
Four beautifully conceived art and design:
Ancient Chinese artisans have always had excellent imagination in the design of vessel shapes. The ivory ball is one of them.
It is carved from a whole piece of ivory, the whole body is a round ball, from the outside to the inside, all by large and small hollow ball connected with each other, all can rotate freely, and have the same center;Each layer of the sphere has a different carving pattern, layer upon layer, extremely delicate, so it is also named “ghost work ball”.
The revolving vase was created during the reign of emperor qianlong.Its shape is quite new, in a carving bottle, set of a rotating bottle, painted on a variety of patterns.
The inner bottle is shaped like a tube with painted patterns on its surface, including scenery of four seasons, landscape figures, flowers, birds, insects and fish.Different pictures can be seen by turning the inner bottle through the opening of the outer bottle.
In the “qing dynasty gaozongxing circle map” turning heart bottle, the inner bottle even installed 12 can “kowtow”, “bow” the tooth carving small man, lifelike.
▲ “qing gaozong line wai figure” blue glaze to turn the heart bottle
The whole body of the censer is hollow pattern, composed of two hemispheres, mostly of silver or copper.It is used to be placed in quilt in winter for heating and incense.
The mystery of this incense burner lies in the ingenious use of the principle of gyroscope. No matter how the outer sphere is rotated, the inner incense burner can always be kept horizontal without scattering the coals or incense ashes, which shows the craftsmanship.
As a king of a country, what should I do when I have to deal with government affairs and write poems and poems?The craftsmen of qianlong period designed such an “artifact” for the emperor — red sandalwood travelling stationery box.
It is a table when folded and expanded, and a box when closed.Inside the box, there are 64 cases with compact structure and various forms of multi-treasure cases, in order to place a set of 64 pieces of small and delicate four treasures of the study and miscellaneous utensils, such as white jade washing, songhua river stone stone, jade arm shelf, etc.
Review the art history of crafts, for the development of handicrafts by the ancient mirror today.
Handicraft in the primitive period did not form a unified artistic style. In addition to pottery and jade ware, other handicraft categories in the neolithic age were also born and developed. Ivory ware and animal bone ware not only appeared, but also were often decorated.
The decoration of this art history period was often totem and emblem, but many decorations and shapes were directly inherited by later generations, becoming the main decoration theme of shang and zhou bronzes.
Black pottery from hemudu period
The shang dynasty had a fairly developed handicraft industry, and bronze casting was especially prosperous. The works of this period were full of majestic and weird colors, reflecting the patriarchal clan system.
By the middle of the western zhou dynasty, the strict rules and features of bronze art had been established, and the patterns began to be simplified and geometric, and the mysterious and weird colors gradually faded.
Fine bronze vessels from the shang and zhou dynasties
During the spring and autumn period, vassals were dominant and the states were divided. Continuous wars made the economy decline, but different ethnic composition and regional background promoted the diversification of art.In the late spring and autumn period, the educational system changed, people’s ideas became active, and they had more freedom in the creation and use of utensils.
Handicraft begins to return to life, pure and fresh and luxuriant look is established gradually.In this period of turbulent history, there appeared successively the iron and lacquer ware that shook the supreme status of bronze ware, and the booming silk weaving industry.
Dragon and phoenix patterns cover beans in warring states period
During the qin and han dynasties, the country was unified, the economy developed, the culture was rich, and the handicraft industry flourished.Centralized political system makes the appearance of works tend to be unified.At this time the idea of the immortals permeated, the decoration began to be full of gods and spirits auspicious beast and floating sacred mountain fairy island, heaven and earth clouds.
During the han dynasty, the “human” factor was gradually strengthened, and the focus on life had become the absolute mainstream.The han culture had an important influence on later generations, especially the opening of the silk road, which strengthened the communication between Chinese and western culture.The most important thing was the invention of porcelain.
In the late eastern han dynasty, green porcelain first appeared in shaoxing and shangyu of zhejiang province.
Wei, jin, southern and northern dynasties were the most chaotic period in Chinese history.Severe social turbulence and complicated political pattern made the development of handicraft difficult. During this period, fine arts were impacted by the west, but also promoted the international artistic communication, making the works rich in connotation and various in appearance.
Most of the works of the western jin dynasty of The Three Kingdoms continued the han style, pursuing vigor and wonder, and showing a fresh and natural atmosphere.During the sixteen kingdoms period, there was no unified style of manual art.
The Three Kingdoms wei west jin banquet picture brick
Tang dynasty is a colorful era, but also the core of the development of manual art, fu lihua mei.In modeling design, the status of plant image has been improved repeatedly, and the realistic tendency is more obvious.
In the early tang dynasty, products and civilizations from the western regions flowed into China.Later, the an-shi rebellion disrupted the silk road and reduced the communication between China and the west. People in the north moved south due to the war, which promoted the development of local art.
Tang dynasty gilded silver pot with parrot pattern handle
Among these dynasties, the handicraft art of song dynasty is the most important.In song dynasty, the state policy of restraining military forces and writing promoted the high development of culture and emphasized the beauty of texture.A variety of characteristics of texture, shape, decoration and color have created the elegant and beautiful style of the manual art in the song dynasty. It is precisely the essence of the national culture that the exquisite workmanship is fine but does not boast the skills.The style of works created by the song dynasty often became the model imitated by the yuan and Ming dynasties.
Bi sheng invented movable type printing in the northern song dynasty.
The mongolians value their cultural traditions and customs very much. They admire the colors blue and white, so a large number of handicrafts based on blue and white come into being.Mengyuan ruling group has an unprecedented large system of official handwork, which not only produces a great amount of products, but also leads the trend of The Times. Therefore, the style of manual art in yuan dynasty is the exquisite and luxurious wind pursued by the government.In history, the yuan dynasty handwork art status is very high, because the Ming and qing dynasties mainstream art finally returned to the direction guided by the yuan dynasty.
Yangzhou museum town museum treasure – the yuan dynasty ji blue glaze white dragon pattern plum bottle
The mainstream art of Ming dynasty is represented by the official porcelain, but it presents different styles in different periods: yongle, xuande dignified and full;Chenghua elegant exquisite;And jiajing in the strong gaudy, show the pursuit of furama beauty.
Compared with the yuan dynasty, the handmade scale of the government in the Ming dynasty was much smaller, and the scale of the people was much larger than that of the government.At the end of Ming dynasty, a landmark work appeared in the history of Chinese science and technology, namely song yingxing’s tiangong kaiwu.
The imperial palace is a collection of blue and white xuande tea leaf patterns ruyi ear flat.During the xuande period of Ming dynasty, the firing technology of blue and white porcelain reached its peak.
Kangxi period, works elegant;Yongzheng period, works elegant;In the late qianlong period, people were obsessed with techniques, bizarre shapes and gaudy decorations.
After the outbreak of the opium war, with the continuous loss of national sovereignty, China’s traditional handicraft industry was squeezed and faced with collapse, and the impact of western civilization on China was even stronger.But only in terms of technology and art, the craft of qing dynasty had a positive impact on overseas countries.
Qing qianlong principal enamel color hollow dish – mouth bottle
During this period, western painting developed vigorously. CAI yuanpei advocated aesthetic education. In 1920, he separated patterns and combined them with other arts and crafts, such as decoration and packaging, into “arts and crafts”, and determined the four categories of art: architecture, sculpture, painting and arts and crafts.
With the social demand for arts and crafts, commercial arts, industrial arts and product design and decoration, theoretical research on arts and crafts has gradually emerged and achieved good results.
One of the “eight friends of pearl mountain”, wang qi’s porcelain painting “muddleheaded is immortal”
After the founding of new China, China’s arts and crafts into a new period of development, more export to earn foreign exchange support industry, promote the economic development of new China.In a special period of history, culture and art were severely damaged and even stopped for a time.It has since recovered, but has been in a weak state.
In recent years, in the process of long-term development and promotion of the state, Chinese traditional handicrafts have gradually got rid of difficulties. In addition, the ministry of culture, the ministry of industry and information technology and the ministry of finance jointly issued the revitalization plan of Chinese traditional crafts, and Chinese traditional crafts have entered a period of vigorous development.
In Chinese art museum, there are large collections of fine arts and crafts.Among them, the best are called national treasures.Now take a look at the top ten national treasures of Chinese handicrafts
Si mu wu ding is a bronze vessel made in the late shang dynasty (14th to 11th century BC). It has a magnificent shape, a height of 133 cm, a mouth length of 110 cm, a mouth width of 79 cm, and a weight of 832.84 kg. It is the largest and heaviest bronze vessel ever unearthed.
Except that the center of the tripod is a rectangular surface without ornamentation, all the other places have ornamentation.On the fine cloud thunder pattern, each part of the main decoration each form.Tripod body with taotie as the main pattern, four intersection, is played with the edge of the leaf, the edge of the cattle head, for taotie.There are two tigers on the outer edge of the ding ear.The ear side is decorated with fish pattern.Four of the design is unique, in three strings above each animal face.According to the research, si muwu tripod should be an important vessel of the shang royal family.Is the shang dynasty bronze culture peak representative period.
Goujian jian, king of yue, is a bronze ware of yue state in the late spring and autumn period. It belongs to the national first-class cultural relic. It was unearthed in wangshan chu tomb group in jiangling county, jingzhou city, hubei province in the winter of 1965.According to the archaeologists present, one mining member cut his finger and bled profusely.Someone tried again its edge, a little force, will be 16 layers of white paper cut.The sword is 55.7cm long, 4.6cm wide, 8.4cm long and 8.4cm long with a weight of 875g. There are two lines of inscriptions on it near the case: “the king of yue jiu shallow (goujian) USES the sword from cha”, which proves that this sword is the legendary king of yue goujian.
King goujian of yue was exquisite in making jian, which showed the excellent skills of the swordsmith.This sword is cold and sharp, after more than 2,400 years, it is still clear and exquisite in design, plus “the thing is named by the person”, it has high historical and cultural value, so it is praised as “the best sword in the world”.
In 1980, two bronze chariots with four horses were found on the west side of qin shi huang’s mausoleum.It is the earliest, largest and most completely preserved bronze chariot and horse, which is of great historical value to the research of ancient Chinese chariot and horse system, sculpture art and smelting technology.
The chariot numbered no. 1 was a vertical chariot with two single shafts and two wheels. The carriage was rectangular and the door was at the back of the carriage.The second car was a mounted car with two wheels.Carriage for the front and rear two rooms, between the two Windows, the door in the back, on the oval car cover.The car body is painted with colorful patterns.The cars and horses are richly decorated with gold and silver.It is composed of 3,462 parts, including 1,742 bronze parts, 737 gold parts and 983 silver parts.Its large body, can be called “bronze crown.”Its design and production also have a surprising similarity to modern engineering structure, which is beyond people’s imagination.
Jin-lu is the highest specification funeral clothes in the han dynasty, which appeared in the western han dynasty.According to “xijing magazine” records, han dynasty emperors were buried with “ju yu box”, like armor, with gold wire connection.This kind of jade box is what people say jade clothes continuously.At that time, people were very superstitious that jade could keep the body immortal, and jade was regarded as a noble ritual vessel and a symbol of status.
At present, there are 18 western han dynasty tombs in which jade clothing has been unearthed, and only eight of them are golden wisp tombs.One of the most representative is the no. 1 tomb in mancheng, hebei province unearthed jin lu jade clothes of jingwang liu sheng of zhongshan.It used more than 1000 grams of gold wire to connect 2498 pieces of jade of different sizes, which took hundreds of craftsmen more than two years to complete.The whole jade garment is exquisitely designed and meticulously worked, which is a rare artistic treasure.When the jade suit was unearthed in 1968, it shocked people at home and abroad.
The animal head agate cup is now stored in the history museum of shaanxi province. It is the only piece of pretty colored jade carving seen in the tang dynasty.The bear-headed agate cup is the first Chinese cultural relic to be banned from overseas exhibition.
Animal head agate cup exquisite workmanship, the selection of very rare silk agate made, texture exquisite, distinct, bright and moist.Artisans also skillfully use the natural texture and shape of materials for carving, depending on color, with the shape change.Shape bending is full of changes, like horn shape.Front grinding cut into the shape of cattle head, beast eyes open round, bright.The horns were spiral, long and curved toward the sides of the cup.The ears are erect and slightly adducted.Beaks inlaid with gold make the finishing point, which not only highlights the perfection of the overall shape, but also adds the value of agate cup.The whole design is very artistic.
The horse-stepping flying swallow, also known as ma chao dragon finch and copper galloping horse, is a bronze ware of the eastern han dynasty. It was unearthed in the han tomb of leitai in wuwei city, gansu province in 1969.It is 34.5 cm tall, 45 cm long and 13 cm wide.Horse head flower tassel micro Yang, head held high Yang tail, tail dozen piaojie, three feet in the air, right hind foot foot step one feiyan, feiyan wings, look back at the consternation.The horse stepping on the flying swallow has been regarded as a symbol of the superb foundry industry in ancient China since its excavation.
Horse stepping on flying swallow is a classic work of artists of the eastern han dynasty. It is a rare treasure of ancient Chinese sculpture art and represents the highest artistic achievement of the eastern han dynasty in the history of Chinese sculpture.No matter how brilliant it is, or how brilliant the casting process is, what is more impressive is the brilliance of its creation.
In October 1983, the horse riding on the flying swallow was identified by the national tourism administration as the symbol of China’s tourism.In 1985, the name “ma chao longque” was determined by the national tourism administration as the graphic symbol of China’s tourism industry, and has been used up to now.It was designated as a national treasure in 1986.
Ru kiln was the official kiln of huizong dynasty in the northern song dynasty, famous for its azure glaze color.The ingrain narcissus basin of celadon of ru kiln is an oval basin, with a wasteful mouth, deep wall, flat bottom protruding narrow edge and four cloud head shape feet;Circumferential wall tyre is thin, bottom sufficient slightly thick.The whole body is covered with azure glaze, extremely uniform run;Underside glaze volume slightly with pale blue color;The edge of the mouth and the edge of the glaze thin light pink.
Daffodil basin wrapped foot burn, the bottom has six fine nail marks, slightly see beige tire color.The pure glazed surface of the whole ware has no grain plate, which is rare in generations, and the color is gentle and simple and elegant, which is exactly what the people of song dynasty wanted to pursue.According to research ru kiln celadon unmarked narcissus basin handed down for the only piece of pieces not open ru kiln.
Four sheep square zun is the late shang dynasty bronze ritual vessels, sacrificial supplies.It was unearthed in 1938 on the mountainside of yueshan shop in huangcai town, ningxiang county, hunan province.National museum of China.
According to the analysis of archeologists, siyang fangzun was cast by two separate casting techniques, that is, the horn of the sheep and the dragon head were cast individually, and then they were separately arranged outside the fan, and then cast as a whole.The whole vessel is cast by block method, which is completed in one go and shows superb casting level. It is called “the highest bronze model” by historians and ranks among the top ten national treasures handed down to the world.
The jade cabbage is now in the national Palace Museum in Taipei.Jade cabbages are almost 100 percent similar to real cabbages. They are made of jade and jade. The cordial theme, white body and green leaves make people feel familiar and intimate.
The work was originally placed in the yonghe palace in the Forbidden City, which was the home of jin’s imperial concubine, guangxu emperor, so it was speculated that it was a dowry of jin’s concubine to symbolize her innocence and desire for more children and grandchildren.The shape of jade cabbage began to be popular in the middle and late qing dynasty.
The qing dynasty “dayu flood control” jade mountain 224 cm high, 96 cm wide, the base of 60 cm high, “yu yu mountain” on the inlaid gold wire brown bronze base, with the blue and white of the most expensive mountain hetian jade carved into 5350 kg.It is now in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
Yushan jade is China’s jade treasure house with the most magnificent materials, the longest road transportation, the longest time spent, the most expensive, the most refined carving, shape is the largest, the largest spirit of jade carving crafts, is also one of the largest jade carving in the world.It describes the story of dayu’s flood control spread through the ages, which is based on the painting scroll of “dayu’s flood control plan” in the song dynasty or before the song dynasty.
Where the era of economic prosperity, art will usher in explosive growth, and then the emergence of a prosperous collection.Let’s take a look at the top five collections in Chinese history.
Marked by the establishment of the Chinese collectors association in 1992, China entered the fifth collection climax, which was also the most popular and prosperous period for the formation of the collection craze in Chinese history.National peace and prosperity, sheng shixing collection, is the contemporary collection of the formation of the background.The “salaryman collector phenomenon” appeared in this period is a unique cultural phenomenon with Chinese characteristics in the history of world collection.Because the east and west have always been the subject of the collection, are literati or upper-class aristocracy, ordinary people are less enthusiastic about the collection of antiquities.
Beijing panjiayuan antique market
This and before 4 times collect the distinction of climax to depend on much, no matter be the person that participate in number or the current reserve of artwork on the market or current money, it is ancient times a few times.On collect big kind on, contemporary collect except inherit qing dynasty to come between the republic of China year with “antique calligraphy and painting” it is the collection with two big traditional and comprehensive kind outside, still much collect big item: namely “today is played”.So-called “play now”, namely contemporary creation, production of calligraphy and painting crafts, such as new calligraphy and painting, new ceramics, new jade, new imitation Ming and qing furniture, new bika, new purple sand pot, new bamboo and wood tooth Angle carvings and so on.
Sotheby’s auction site
The biggest difference between the contemporary collection and the past dynasties is that the ancient collection is dominated by playing antiques and ancient calligraphy and painting, while the contemporary collection goes hand in hand with playing antiques, ancient calligraphy and painting and playing “today’s playing” and playing “today’s painting and calligraphy”. Even the works of living calligraphers and painters are much higher than those of famous calligraphers and painters who have passed away.The formation of contemporary collection craze is more characterized by investment and speculative collection, marked by commercial collection, while traditional self-cultivation collection has been marginalized.But true antique collectors are still the protagonists of the contemporary world.
At the same time, in the modern art market, due to the spread of western culture, foreign auction houses enter the Chinese market, leading to a variety of art transactions in domestic galleries, auction houses and other situations, making the modern art market present a different situation from the traditional one, and the whole art market tends to be more standardized and globalized.
In recent years, large and small in the shooting field, often can see the figure of the stars of the show business.Some materials show that, in the collection of the group, in addition to real estate owners and overseas investors, celebrities have become a new force in the collection of the new rich, such as wang gang, zhang tieling, haiyan, wang zhongjun, feng xiaogang, zhang hanyu, Chen daoming, Chen luyu and other figures, let the scene more starry.
Such as national treasure inside the watch in the “national treasure” will cover your nose and mouth abro ho-shen wang gang, in recent years, wang gang doesn’t act, he presided over a collection show that even a fire, as a host of wang gang, also contains a lot of pieces, these babies are mainly concentrated in the bird cage, chinaware, antique.From the very beginning of bird cage collection, to today’s collection of the most porcelain, the home of the rich collection of wang gang still from time to time to visit Beijing pan home stalls.It is said that the largest collection of wang gang is porcelain, followed by calligraphy and painting, including works of Ming and qing dynasties as well as modern and contemporary masterpieces.There are Ming and qing dynasty furniture, jade and other bamboo and wood carving miscellaneous.Wang gang thinks all the time, collect not necessarily the game that rich person plays.Some collectors after more than ten years of panning, finally a set of old version of the comic strip “romance of The Three Kingdoms” to save the whole, the joy is no less than in the international big bang spent thousands of dollars to win a big pot of blue and white.This makes everyone happy again.He even privately made it a rule not to take the show for three or four months each year in midsummer and midwinter, to free up more time for taobao.
The heat wave of collecting in the late qing dynasty and the early republic of China was the most recent and the last before the collapse of Chinese feudal dynasty.Against the backdrop of the turbulent times of internal and external troubles in the late qing dynasty, the collection craze in the late qing dynasty and the early republic of China was like a revival, which composed a sad and magnificent movement for the fall of the feudal dynasty.
At the end of the qing dynasty, the manchu dynasty was on the verge of collapse.The last emperor puyi to appreciate the name of things, so that his brother brought out many famous paintings, in order to maintain the expenses of the small court to the bank mortgage inventory of kiln ware.Many eunuchs steal palace antiques sold, the decline of wang sold palace relics.Because of the emergence of antique sellers and buyers, the antique market formed a group, so in the late qing dynasty, Beijing liulichang antique market was once prosperous, and Japanese and European antique dealers looked for business opportunities.
Historical pARTos of the antique market at the end of the qing dynasty and the beginning of the republic of China
In the early years of the republic of China, Shanghai five road (now guangdong road) antique market is also thriving, Shanghai beach famous “luwu company” is the export of antique big business.During this period, the mainstream collection items of traditional Chinese literati and literati were still popular, such as gold, stone, stele, calligraphy and painting. Japanese and European antique dealers were keen to purchase China’s imperial kilns from the song dynasty to the Ming and qing dynasties and stone Buddha statues in the past dynasties. Therefore, it also led local compradors, capitalists, doctors and lawyers to collect porcelain and antiques.This period is the real mature period of Chinese folk antique market.
The fourth collection craze is mainly due to the increase of external demand and the relative reduction of domestic demand, because in the late qing dynasty, under the intrusion of western powers for many times, the people were destitute, and our artworks were looted by westerners and exiled, which can be seen in museums all over the world.During the republic of China, there were four famous childe, zhang xueliang, zhang boju, pu dong and yuan hanyun.These four people were collectively known as the “four childe of the republic of China”. They were very elegant and loved collecting. A series of collectors such as pang yuanji, zhang daqian and wu hufan emerged in the south.With the dominance of these big collectors, the market was booming.
Chinese ShouCangShi from wei jin to tang and song dynasty popular collection and northern song dynasty to the southern song dynasty popular calligraphy and painting collection, through the gradual formation of the concept of the late Ming dynasty antique high antique miscellaneous time, gradually in the late qing dynasty during the period of the republic of China has no major popular sports collection, but in the aggregate, and all the collection collection can be classified into two categories: namely, antique calligraphy and painting.“Antiques”, including porcelain, bronze, bamboo and ivory carving and other miscellaneous artifacts collection;“Calligraphy and painting” includes ancient Chinese calligraphy and painting, stele, ancient books and other paper collections.
Zhang boju is recognized as the most obsessed collector among the “four great talents of the republic of China”.In order to collect calligraphy and painting at the sale of property, and wang wei spy struggle.
At that time, a very precious Chinese painting is facing the danger of leaving abroad, zhang boju immediately after that contact with the Palace Museum, hope the Palace Museum will spend a lot of money to buy it.But it was rejected by the Palace Museum.Can’t, zhang boju in order to avoid this national treasure flow abroad, reluctantly sold the 220 acres of homestead.But was targeted by wang wei spy, also kidnapped him, let the family pay to ransom.Did not think of zhang boju would rather be torn up rather than ransom, has been in the standoff, until the spies concede a step, lower the ransom, to be saved.The prince, who has devoted his life to the collection, has in some ways made a contribution to the preservation of the country’s cultural relics.
The art market in the early qing dynasty was dominated by calligraphy and painting.With the development of The Times, in the middle and late qing dynasty, tablet inscriptions and ancient books were gradually known to the public, which injected new blood into the art market dominated by calligraphy and painting.Qing dynasty will be the han stele worship if the gods, so stele collection has become a ART spot.In the middle and late qing dynasty, the art market also rapidly completed the development process from scale to maturity.
Art collections are generally dominated by antiques.The “antiques” as we know them today began to be called in the qing dynasty (1616-1911), and were called “gu dong” before that.The kangxi, yongzheng and qianlong periods of the qing dynasty were the peak of the development of the art market.
The golden age of kang-qian was the longest period of the golden age of the province in Chinese history, which lasted for a hundred years. It can be said that the whole 18th century, from 1700 to 1800, was the best period in history.
The development of the art market in the qing dynasty could not do without the attention of the rulers.In the qing dynasty, the art market is a social aspect, but also a reflection of cultural content.Liang qingbiao, gao shiqi, anqi and other major figures who liked collecting in the qing dynasty brought vitality to the painting and calligraphy market in the qing dynasty.
Tang libai on the balcony post liang qingbiao old Tibet
During the qing dynasty, not only the rulers occupied an important position in the art market, but also some “suppliers” played a role in promoting it.Although there were a lot of literati in the qing dynasty, their life was very poor and they had no conditions to create works. At this time, some big businessmen who respected literati in the qing dynasty would appear as “providers” to provide conditions for those literati to create paintings.In this case, the art market in the qing dynasty also had enough calligraphy and painting works in circulation, there will not be less than the demand for the situation.
Gu yingtai — the essence of natural history
The most famous classic of the early qing dynasty is the drama theorist li yu’s “casual love accidentally sent • machine play department”, focusing on the appreciation of literary and playful;Gu yingtai’s the essence of natural history is a collection of antique works, twelve volumes are divided into stele, calligraphy and painting, bronze ware, kiln ware, inkstone, lacquer ware, strange stone and other appreciation.In addition, the essence of natural history evaluated the historical and cultural status of stele inscription, calligraphy and painting, bronze ware and porcelain in the history of Chinese antiques and artifacts, and had an influential influence on the collection of later generations of literati who mainly pursued the “golden stone stele inscription”.
When it comes to qianlong, what he can’t avoid is his “playing screen pattern”, but regardless of the artistic level of his inscriptions, his painting poems are an effective way to investigate his thoughts and feelings.Unlike other painting poems which focused on the artist’s spirit, qianlong’s painting poems had a strong sense of intervention.
Qianlong hanfu portrait
As the ruler of the central plain, qianlong and his royal family needed “elegant” han culture, but they were not willing to be assimilated by it.While physically occupying a large collection of ancient paintings in the imperial palace, qianlong added his own wishes to the paintings.These paintings originally contained the spirit of intellectuals, giving way to the emperor’s own good, and even these paintings have become the carrier of the emperor’s will.According to the author place sees, when qianlong reads a picture, its thought, viewpoint and original picture form huge contrast, nothing is better than landscape painting.Qianlong’s change of the theme of “seclusion” of literati landscape painting is embodied in the “imperial” painting poems of landscape painting of wen zhengming.
The graph is qianlong QianYin, according to “the qianlong treasure serval” records, qianlong seal 1000 bulls, commonly used more than 500.
Capitalism sprouted after the middle of the Ming dynasty.As late as the middle of the Ming dynasty, in addition to the general painting and calligraphy traders, in suzhou, jiaxing, nanjing and other cities where industry and commerce developed and humanities gathered together, some independent painting and calligraphy shops appeared, and the market has become the main place for private collection of artworks.After the middle leaves of the Ming dynasty, the status of private art collection jumped to the top, surpassing the internal government collection and occupying an absolute advantage.
The Ming dynasty was the heyday of the calligraphy market.Ming dynasty painting and calligraphy trading generally by the hands of dealers, market operation, price level is clear, rising trend is more obvious.At the end of the reign of emperor jiajing, the leading families all over the country began to collect calligraphy and painting antiques. Among them, jiangnan was the most active place with a large number of calligraphers with profound artistic attainments and a large number of wealthy businessmen and tycoons gathered together.At the same time, a large number of professional painters flooded into the market to sell paintings and books as a way of making a living, among which shen zhou, wen zhengming, tang Yin, qiu ying and others who were the “four families of the Ming dynasty” were the most prominent ones.For example, tang Yin has a poem: “don’t try the golden Dan, don’t sit in meditation, don’t plow the fields for businessmen.Get up and write on the green hill to sell, do not make the family build evil money “the calligraphy painter that a few are official in the north also unwilling and doleful, also set foot in the market, add large quantities of franchising calligraphy and the calligraphy and painting businessman that mount a character to walk in market upstream shuttle, had the effect of market intermediary.As a result of these factors, the calligraphy market experienced an unprecedented period of prosperity.
Although the collection of literati paintings was popular in the Ming dynasty, the collection of curios and sundries became one of the most influential collection items at that time.Ming “long qing” after the switch, a large number of precious wood, rhinoceros horn, ivory imports from overseas and imported enamel craft from overseas increasingly influence, antique miscellaneous craft produced celebrities.
A sundry collection is like a corral: a basin for gathering jewels, jewels, or treasures.Odds and ends, also known as odds and ends in old curio custom.Curio category inside, besides pottery and porcelain, can offer the craft that begin to play to collect, include bronze ware, jade, furniture, embroider to taste etc., can call miscellaneous.Miscellaneous collection of the most types, shape and system of the most strange, the most refined technology, the most wide range of the charm of endless appreciation, unlimited potential.Miscellaneous collection, fun in a “miscellaneous” word.
Ming xuande blue and white fish kui
In the Ming dynasty, due to the development of porcelain is also very prosperous, porcelain miscellaneous is sought after by collectors.In 2017 annual auction clinchs a deal in the top 10 porcelain, this call by sotheby’s specialist “jintong king 盌”, as early as in 1963 has been at the Tokyo national museum exhibition, after more than 50 years not seen in the market, the site for hk $65 million or, in the end for hk $202 million dropping the hammer, clinch a deal for hk $229 million, by sotheby’s race.
The most famous ancient books of the Ming dynasty are dong qichang’s “antiques 13”, cao zhao’s “ge gu yaolun” and wen zhenheng’s “changwu zhi”.From what dong qichang said about the essence of appreciating and playing antiques (later called antiques, and now called antiques), the Ming dynasty should be the laying period of the theory of plaything changzhi that “appreciation of ancient things can lead to virtue and collection can become talent”.
A disciple of the years of the republic of China, historian Chen yinque WengTongWen plunged into the national Palace Museum warehouse, found XiangYuanBian in which leaves a mark on his collection of calligraphy and painting, is a mark on his word “jing”, or “ink forest people”, and according to the contemporary writer Zhou Lvjing early wide thousand to the coding sequence of, the beginning and the end of the book to each work or four border position.The former is very easy to identify, but also easy to emerge in an endless stream of fraud cheats take advantage of the loophole, make a pile of fakes to confuse the world, only really master the code secret of the latter, is to have a gold key into the treasure house of xiang’s collection.Following these clues, professor ong tong wen restored the lost collection catalogue and calculated the total number of xiang’s calligraphy and painting collections to be more than 2,190.
Xiang yuan bian seal, about 110 square
Weng tongwen said that the collection of calligraphy and painting of the Palace Museum amounted to more than 4,600 pieces according to the record of calligraphy and painting of the Palace Museum.
How good is his collection?We come to a column names: collection of wang xizhi, b, huai su, his life running-penmanship melts former people, c, su shi, huang tingjian,, Zhao Meng ð « ¯ calligraphy name card, such as gu kaizhi, wang wei, li kung-lin, bei, Zhao Mengjian, Zhao Meng ð « ¯, NiZan, huang gongwang, wen Ming, qiu yingGu kaizhi the figure of goddess luo rhapsody, wang xizhi’s “line of script, character primer”, qiu ying han GongChunXiao figure “, “and 1”, Zhao Meng ð « ¯ “autumn magpie China map” and so on have been placed in a dayIn the tianlaige of xiang yuanbian, there were not only paintings and calligraphy that shocked the world, but also bronzes, porcelain and even Musical Instruments.
The song dynasty was a period of great prosperity for Chinese painting.Palace painting, scholar-bureaucrat painting and folk painting formed their own systems, and at the same time influenced, absorbed and penetrated each other, which made the painting of song dynasty present a colorful situation.The development of commerce in the song dynasty also greatly surpassed that of its predecessors. Towns and cities flourished, and paper money appeared and was widely used.Based on this social situation, the art market in the song dynasty developed unprecedentedly.
The song dynasty was a convergent society, which had a gathering effect on culture.In the art market of the song dynasty, the trading forms of painting and calligraphy were diversified, including three main forms: store trading, market trading and pawnshop.These forms adapt to different groups of buyers and sellers and trading conditions, which are both flexible and applicable. At the same time, they are of great benefit to the prosperity of the painting and calligraphy market.Today’s almost “noble game” of art sales, in the song dynasty as well.
This kind of pomposity was absolutely inseparable from the vigorous promotion of culture by the current ruler song huizong. He not only created a “thin and golden body” himself, but also influenced and drove the art boom, leading to the prevalence of painting and calligraphy creation and collection.First, the government set up an art academy, and only outstanding painters were appointed to the academy.At the same time, a good cultural atmosphere was created. At that time, painters had a very high status in society.In the song dynasty, paintings had not only economic value but also political value.
The stone in the song painting
But in the aspect of collecting strange stones, the scholars in the field of stone appreciation think: wei and jin dynasties were the obscure period of appreciating and playing strange stones;The tang dynasty was the time to appreciate the formation of taihu stone.The song dynasty was a prosperous period for the appreciation of lingbi stone. Especially, mi fu, a calligrapher of the song dynasty, summed up the key points for the appreciation of lingbi stone, namely “wrinkle, thinness, leakage and penetrability”, which had an impact on the history of stone appreciation activities after the song dynasty in China for nearly a thousand years.Su dongpo, a great calligrapher and poet of song dynasty, also put forward the concept of “ugly stone”.Zheng banqiao, a great painter of qing dynasty, further put forward the essence of appreciating ugly stones: “ugly and handsome”.
The bellatrix stone
The above example is to illustrate that the literati of ancient China were already enjoying the rare stones a thousand years before other critics of the collection thought that the first collection craze of the northern song dynasty was formed.Therefore, the first collection ART period formed by scholar-officials in Chinese history should be the period from the jin and tang dynasties to the northern song dynasty.
Song huizong most like strange flowers and stones, for this, also set up a special flower and stone “scraping department”, responsible for the strange flowers and stones collected from all over the country, a ship ship to the capital.The ships in charge of transportation, ten ships in a group, are made up of one class.
It is said to be the flower stone class
It was either the towering old trees or the outsize stones that caught the eye of emperor huizong.To this end, the miners had to build a big ship. As a result, the stones were brought into the capital.But emperor huizong of the song dynasty lavishly rewarded those in charge of collecting and transporting goods.Because of this, those who can not live, or embrace the dream of wealth, all riveted strength, looking for strange flowers and stones.Once, in order to dedicate an ancient tree to huizong, the ship was temporarily rebuilt and the tree was transported into the capital.Can be on the road, encountered the wind and waves, branches and ship intertwined together to cause the sinking, the whole ship people are not spared.This shipwreck was but one of many.
China has a long history and crafts are emerging in an endless stream.The following products are most representative.
Chinese ceramics is the treasure of Chinese culture Treasury, is the most rich national characteristics of daily crafts.With the development of Chinese history, foreign economic and cultural exchanges, ceramic art spread to the world, many countries porcelain craft development is directly or indirectly affected by the Chinese ceramic craft.Ceramics and tea, silk and known as China’s three specialties and famous at home and abroad.
Tri-colored glazed pottery of the tang dynasty is a kind of pottery popular in the tang dynasty, with yellow, brown and green as the basic glaze color. Later people used to call this kind of pottery “tri-colored glazed pottery of the tang dynasty”.Tri-colored glazed pottery of the tang dynasty originated in xi ‘an, luoyang and yangzhou.
There are two main types of enamelware. One is the enamelware with corded wire and copper foils from Persia.Since then, cloisonne has become the name for copper – feted wire – cutting enamel ware.
The other is the art of painting enamel from Europe, which was introduced to China during the reign of emperor kangxi in the qing dynasty.
Enamel color porcelain is in the emperor kangxi personally inspired by the creation of a new variety, because imitation in copper painting enamel ware, so enamel color also known as porcelain painting enamel.Enamel color porcelain production is different from other porcelain, first by jingdezhen royal kiln factory produced quality plain tires, sent to the palace, then by the palace painter painting, and finally by the qing palace office of the enamel workshop for the second firing.
Enamel color production and development mainly in the kangyonggan three dynasties, is a very rare imperial palace, the past commonly known as “ancient yuexuan” porcelain.
Coloured glaze, “take stone as qualitative, with saltpetre and it.Reefs are wrought with iron, copper, iron, lead and lead.No stone without some glass.Non – copper red lead is not fine, and then sanhe.It is in this way that fire is born, and its mystery also comes from the baptism of fire.The crafts is beyond the reach of ordinary materials.Of coloured glaze art bizarre, transparent, limpid.
Coloured glaze is a kind of ancient Chinese law material since ancient times has been used by the royal family, the user has extremely strict level requirements, so the civil is very rare.
Colored glaze is known as the first of China’s five famous vessels (gold and silver, jade jade, colored glaze, ceramics, bronze) and one of the seven treasures of Buddhism.”Bright make” carry: the adornment that the emperor awards to bestow number one scholar is medicine jade, 4 goods above ability have.
During the reign of emperor guangxu of the qing dynasty, more than 7,000 carryels of glass products were exported to foreign countries every year, with dozens of kinds of products, such as qing, jade, screen, chess pieces, rosary beads, fish bottles, hairpins, gourds, inkstones and buddhist eyes.Some of the beads were exported to southeast Asian countries, and some were also exported to North America, where they were popular with the indians.
Decorative techniques are mostly carved, painted, gilt and enamel, representative works are wrapped silk glass bottles.Due to the unique Chinese style and exquisite crafts, the glassware of the qing dynasty was greatly appreciated by people from all over the world.
Some of the largest museums in Europe and North America have collections of Chinese court glassware from the qing dynasty, especially from the qianlong period.
Silk figure is a traditional national crafts of our country, which is shaped by silk. The whole body of the figure is made of top to bottom clothes, cloth and silk flowers on the head, palace lanterns and silk fans are all made of fine silk, silk yarn and silk.So silk production of raw materials is very elegant.
Most of the silk figure works are based on the ancient handmaidens, dramatic figures and folk dances in Chinese folk stories.Therefore, it has extremely strong traditional style and national style.
Chinese knot art is a unique folk craft knitting art in China. With its unique Oriental charm and colorful changes, it fully embodies the wisdom and profound cultural deposits of the Chinese people.
Every knot is made of a piece of silk thread from beginning to end, and every basic knot is named according to its shape and meaning.The knot that ACTS the role of different is united in wedlock each other together, or with other the decorations collocation combination that has auspicious design, formed modelling distinctive, flowery and colorful, implied meaning is deep, the Chinese tradition with rich connotation is lucky adornment article.
Such as “ji qing yu”, “fushou shuangquan”, “shuangxi linmen”, “jixiang ruyi”, “yilu fengshun” and other combinations, are warm and strong good wishes, praise and convey heartfelt prayer and wish of the good work.
Paper cutting is one of the most popular folk arts in China, often used in religious ceremonies, decorative arts and plastic arts.Paper cutting art generally has symbolic meaning and is also part of this ritual.
In addition, paper cutting is also used as an ornament for offering sacrifices to ancestors and gods.Meet New Year festival or newly-married festival, people sticks beautiful and bright-coloured paper-cut on wall, window, door paper, wall flower, ceiling flower, lantern, festal atmosphere is rendered very full-bodied festival.Paper cutting itself can also be given as a gift to others.There are two common methods of paper cutting: scissors and scissors.
In ancient China, bronze ware was mostly referred to from the late shang dynasty to the early western zhou dynasty, which was the heyday of the development of bronze ware.Later, bronze began to thin body, decorative gradually simplified.
There is no place in the world where bronze wares can be compared with ancient Chinese ones in terms of scale of use, casting techniques, plastic arts and varieties.This is also one of the reasons why ancient Chinese bronze ware occupies a unique position in the history of world art and has aroused universal attention.
Jade has a long history and unique meaning.Jade, containing the ancient people’s endless pursuit of ideals and spiritual yearning, through the ages, people put all the beautiful things to jade.
The ancients said, “if the jade is not cut, it will not become a valuable tool.” its original meaning is to say that the jade can become a valuable treasure after processing.
This kind of precious metal has magical power, it is scarce, precious, value is stable, it is the symbol of wealth and status, it is the target that people pursues all the time and position is long flourishing.Owning gold is equivalent to owning wealth, which is determined by the unique characteristics of gold. The luxury of gold makes people use it as a jewelry decoration.
Silver is a precious metal with moderate hardness, ductility, easy to be hammered into shape, bright natural color and not easy to be oxidized or discolorated. It is a good material for making crafts.Silver articles are often hidden in folk households.
Pearl is representing satisfactory and auspicious, use pearl to act the role ofing to be able to reflect elegant ethical amorous feelings, let a person appear very high and easy.
Some bonsai top red fruit with coral beads system, narcissus is white jade flowers, sapphire do leaves.Rubies and pearls for lace, the center of the peakstone mountain.The pines with pearls set in golden thread and the longevity stones and ganoderma with rubies set in golden thread.Peach to hibiscus stone, tourmaline, wax and other red, pink gem production.Chinese rose with copper branches and leaves, branches gilded, leaves dot blue, with color materials, coral petals, hibiscus stone flower buds.Panoramic meaning vivid, quite xiao zhenhua.
This kind of bonsai is used in the palace queen birthday display treasures or the birthday of the emperor’s birthday by the officials.
Filigree inlaying is a traditional crafts in China. It processes precious metals such as gold and silver into fine wires and shapes them with techniques such as base pushing, wire pinching and weaving. It also inlays patterns on the filigree and then inlays beautiful colored beads, jade and gemstones or collocates with cloisonne craft.
Filament Mosaic is a traditional palace art, its process is complex and cumbersome, the big process on the points of pinch, fill, save, welding, piling, piling, weaving, weaving eight.A good work is not one person can make, need every process on the level of workers are very high.
There is a long history of bone carving. The ancients sharpened the bone into needles and knives and carved words and patterns on the bones.Bone carving is a very exquisite crafts, through the different knife carving out of the three-dimensional figures, flowers and birds and so on.
Choose high grade pure natural horn makings, its quality of a material is exquisite, colour and lustre is natural, carve finely, magical form beauty, give a person with distinctive primitive simplicity, natural beauty.Exquisite sculpture art, with a strong central plains cultural style and regional characteristics.
Ivory carving is a crafts carved with ivory and the teeth of other animals. Its techniques are basically the same as those of bamboo carving and wood carving.
The shape of the objects to the penholder, arm shelf, penholder, screen and so on.Ivory carving technology has a long history in China. During the Ming and qing dynasties, due to the expansion of economic and cultural exchanges across South Asia and Africa, ivory raw materials were also introduced into China. With Beijing, yangzhou and guangzhou as the center, China’s unique ivory carving transmission technology was developed.
There are many kinds of ivory carvings in the qing dynasty, ranging from fan bones, incense, flower arrangement and pen container, to bonsai with flowers, landscape figures, giant dragon boats and even a screen.Carved ivory works of art, solid and fine, soft and smooth, are highly prized by connoisseurs.
Egg carving is a set of art, calligraphy, sculpture and many other techniques and one of the art.The design and creation of egg carving is totally different from other carving because of the limitation of the eggshell and its fragile texture.The author is required to have a solid foundation of fine arts and sculpture, steady hand, under the knife.Especially in the critical point of the work, a little careless will be wasted, a few days of the heart is also lost.
As an alternative art in the field of craft carving, egg carving is completely different from other kinds of carving in terms of design concept and creation techniques. Every piece of work can only succeed after many failures.
Shell carving is the choice of these colored shells, skillfully with its natural color and texture, shape, cut, grinding, polishing, stacking, paste and other processes carefully carved into flat paste, semi-relief, Mosaic, three-dimensional and other forms and specifications of crafts.
Rhinoceros horn from the south Tibetan Tibet, yunnan also have.Grain such as roe, said of corn;Millet grain has an eye in, call millet eye.All vessels should be moistened, corn grain blossoms good.
Carved rhinoceros horn Ming and qing dynasties, as a result of the development of arts and crafts by leaps and bounds, carving technology has reached a new peak, exquisite carving art extended to the horn material, so that many shapes, different patterns of rhinoceros horn cup stand out, famous in the world.
Ming dynasty carved rhino horn products are very eye-catching.Carver artists use the shape of the tip of the horn flat bottom, carved into different patterns of cups, jugs and other wine.
There are circular, relief, engraving or several techniques.Some are painted to protect the wood and beautify.Generally choose the texture of fine tenacious, not easy to deformation of the tree species such as nanmu, rosewood, camphor, cypress, ginkgo, agarwood, rosewood, longan and other architectural decoration wood carving, there are many folk legends, opera, historical stories as the theme of the works;
Appreciation sex woodcarving pays attention to the aesthetic feeling that develops woodiness itself, form spends potential, because material is satisfied, become the artwork that people loves.Door window, hang piece, beautiful board, screen, bright qing dynasty furniture, wall hang, figure of Buddha, picture frame wait for of all kinds sculpture wood art to taste exquisite work, do not lose classic lasting appeal again with distinctive feature.
Lacquerware is bright, clean, washable, light weight, heat insulation, corrosion resistance, inlaid and painted in a variety of colours, usually in black or black, forming a colourful world on the surface of the object with beautiful patterns.
The han dynasty was the heyday of lacquer ware.The variety of lacquerware added boxes, plates, cases, earrings, dishes, bowls, baskets, boxes, feet, spit POTS, masks, chessboards, stools, danger, several, etc. At the same time, new techniques were also created, such as colorful needle carving, copper buckle, gold plate, hawksbill plate, inlay, pile paint and many other decorative techniques.
Nuclear carving is a traditional Chinese folk craft, using guangdong’s “wuhang” olive stone, carved on it a variety of fine figure pictures, since the Ming and qing dynasties, to the collection of lovers love for the past dynasties.
Ming dynasty notes writer Wei Xue the nuclear boat, and describes the artist Wang Shuyuan creation “su dongpo boating on red cliff”, is “have no surplus” “olive nuclear carved on a boat, a small boat with su dongpo, LuZhi, fo Yin, the boatman and child son five characters, different expression, decoration and furnishing articles are on board, character folds floating, 4 times the size of a grain of ship window can open easily, surprise.
China is the world’s earliest use of bamboo products, so bamboo carving in China has a long history.Bamboo carving, also known as bamboo carving, is to carve a variety of decorative patterns and text on the bamboo ware, or carved with bamboo roots into a variety of furnishings.Bamboo carving became an art until the tang dynasty.
Rattan weaving is a traditional practical crafts.All sorts of household utensils and furniture that use mountain cane to braid.Main producing area guangdong, see at the place such as jiang men, zhongshan, foshan more, history is long.
Rattan weaving this local specialty is not only a very good living appliances, but also a strange production and even war equipment.There is a record about “rattan jia jun” in The Three Kingdoms annals. The so-called “rattan jia” is the wardress woven by rattan, “crossing the river is not heavy, neither the sword nor the arrow can enter through the water is not wet”.
There are many kinds of straw weaving, rich resources and different designs and colors, forming the characteristics of different nationalities.There are mainly traditional grain grass, wheat straw, palm silk and other woven.There are hundreds of designs and patterns such as straw curtain, straw mat, straw basket, straw fan, straw mat and straw toy.It is a kind of grass basket only, multicolored, modelling diversity, let a person dazzling.
The crafts natural willow hand weaves but becomes, the natural environmental protection.Wicker peeling, smooth surface, fresh color, soft and solid, is the folk crafts weaving willow bucket, willow basket, willow dustpan and other production, living supplies materials.
Blowing sugar figurine is a traditional folk craft, which integrates art, food and toys into one. It is very popular among children, and most of its crafts are passed down from generation to generation by artists.Usually artists carry on the back of the box, walking through the streets, while doing business.
Legend “blowing sugar figure” ancestor is liu bowen.Legend of zhu yuanzhang to the throne can be handed down from generation to generation, on the creation of “cabinet” fire heroes.Liu bowen got away with it, and was rescued by an old man who carried a burden of sugar. They exchanged clothes, and from then on, liu bowen went from street to street carrying a burden and “blowing sugar man”.
The “sugar blowing figure” mainly USES caramel brewed by the artist and the caramel body is brown.The main ingredient of caramel is starch.Art designers have their own unique formula and stewing method, the whole process is all a matter of experience to judge, the caramel when heated to a suitable temperature, pulling down a ball and knead into a ball, with your index finger with a deep pit, and a small amount of starch pressure outside the tightening, quickly pull out, to a certain fineness, suddenly broken candy bar, at this point, the candy bar is like a thin tube, blow with the mouth shape immediately.The whole operation process must go through hard training, the technique must be accurate, the modelling must be succinct vivid.
The tianjin clay figurine zhang caisu art is exquisite, the influence far reaches the world each place, occupies the important position in our country folk art history.(the figure in the above “emperors of all dynasties” is a clay figurine zhang caisu)
The dough figurines are actually mo, small figures made of glutinous rice flour and colored dough.
It is mainly used in wedding gifts and funeral offerings, as well as birthday gifts, gifts to relatives and friends, prayers and festivals, etc.
Also known as silk embroidery, is one of China’s excellent traditional national crafts.According to “book of history” the chapter before record is in 4000 takes a system, stipulate “dress picture and dress embroider”;In the book of songs, there is also a description of “plain clothes with embroidery”.
The custom of advocating embroidered clothing in the song dynasty has gradually become popular among the people, which also promoted the development of Chinese silk embroidery technology.
Ming embroidery has become a very expressive art, has been known as the “four famous embroidery” su embroidery, yue embroidery, xiang embroidery, shu embroidery.The suzhou suzhou suzhou embroidery and the frontier silk are the most famous.
Cloth art is the art on cloth, it is a magnificent wonderful work in Chinese folk craft, the cloth art of ancient China basically has embroider, carry, decal to wait.The ancient Chinese folk cloth art is mainly used for clothing, shoes and hats, bed curtains, bags, backpacks and other small decorations (such as headscarves, sachets, fan belts, purses, handkerchiefs, etc.), toys and so on.
Chinese cloth art has been handed down from generation to generation, pouring into people’s endless wisdom, with distinct artistic characteristics.
A fabric in which patterns are woven by jacquard and weaving techniques using dyed warp and weft threads.Chinese silk jacquard technology has a long history.Silk fabrics existed in China as early as the Yin and shang dynasties.In the zhou dynasty, brocade appeared in the silk fabrics, with brilliant patterns and perfect skills.
Han dynasty has a room, brocade department, specializing in weaving brocade, for the palace to enjoy.
During the zhenguan period of the tang dynasty, dou shilun’s shu brocade patterns, such as pheasant, sheep fighting and phoenix flying, were called the damask Yang pattern.In the weaving process, the warp and weft threads are changed from warp and weft threads to weft brocade, and the color warp and weft threads are changed from shallow to deep or from deep to shallow.
The imperial court of the northern song dynasty established a large-scale weaving workshop in bianjing and other places to produce various brocade brocade.
Batik is China’s ancient folk traditional textile printing and dyeing crafts, which is called wax in ancient times. Together with skein (tie-dye) and pinch (hollow-out printing), it is also known as China’s three ancient printing techniques.
Wax dyeing is to dip wax knife into wax painted flowers and then dye them with indigo. When the wax is removed, the cloth surface will show a variety of patterns of white flowers on a blue background or blue flowers on a white background.
Because the batik pattern is rich, the color is simple but elegant, the style is unique, USES in the manufacture clothing clothing and each kind of life real goods, appears simple and natural, fresh and pleasing to the eye, rich national characteristic.