Jadeite is known as the king of jade. Jadeite is the jadeite. Its chemical composition is sodium aluminosilicate.
The structure is composed of numerous fine fibrous microcrystals interwoven into a dense aggregate with blanket structure.
Very tough, able to withstand quite high impact force and pressure, its products are durable.
The hardness of halcyon is moshi 6.5-7, specific gravity 3.3, vitreous burnish or pearl burnish, often show translucent, a few is transparent (call completely transparent “glass piece”), fracture irregular shape.
In China, baoyu known as yellow for fei, green for cui.Jadeite’s producing area mainly concentrates in Burma north mi ** mong gong area.
3, what is hetian jade?
Hetian jade refers to the oldest nephrite produced in hetian, xinjiang.Its chemical composition is calcium magnesium silicate, mineral composition is composed of amphibole special aggregate.
Mohs hardness 6-6.5, specific gravity 2.9-3.1, uneven fracture shape, grease luster, translucent to opaque, color white, green, yellow, black, red and so on.
The color on a piece of material is generally more unified, its chemical composition is more stable, can withstand strong acid, strong alkali, generally used to do jade carving and all kinds of small pendants and bracelets, it is also the main material of ancient jade products in China.
4, what is xiuyu?
Jade main origin of liaoning xiuyan county, in guangdong xinyi, sichuan hui li and other places also output.Xiuyu’s chemical composition is magnesium silicate containing water.
Mineral composition is a collection of snake and stone minerals, which is composed of fine fibrous and blade-like serpentine crystals, and is a very fine dense block.
It comes in a variety of colors, with light green and yellowish green not common.Its hardness is 2.5-4.5, specific gravity is about 2.5, grease luster or waxy luster;
Translucent to opaque, there are very few for transparent, and plexiglass more similar.
Jade due to the low yield of hardness is low grade jade material, often used to serve jade carving and all kinds of small hanging pieces, also do some tea, wine, fitness ball, jade pillow and other life products.
5, what is dushan jade?
Dushan jade is named because it was produced in dushan, 8 kilometers northeast of nanyang city, henan province.
Its mineral composition is the antigonite, belongs to the multi – color jade, its bright colors, patterns complete, light and shade, and texture is fine, dense and hard.
Mohs hardness 6-6.5, specific gravity 2.9;Glassy or greasy luster, opaque or slightly transparent.Dushan jade is commonly used in the market as a variety of jade ornaments.
6,What is agate?
Agate refers to chalcedony with striated structure, which is a colloidal mineral whose main component is silica.
Hardness is 6.5-7, specific gravity is 2.65, the fracture is shell-like, transparent to translucent, glass luster.
Agate qualitative pure person should be white, because contain coloured ion or other impurity, ability can appear gray, red, blue wait for color.
Natural agate after “burning red”, heat treatment can make light agate into bright red.Can also be quality white agate dyed into a variety of colors.
Agate market often made into bracelets, also do some small pendants and ornaments.Agate is mainly produced in Brazil. The main source of agate in China is fuxin city in liaoning province.
7, what is “hibiscus stone”?
Hibisma stone is a kind of pink translucent to transparent quartz block, also known as “rose quartz”, its chemical composition is mainly silica, in addition to showing pink, also have deep pink.
The hardness is 7, the specific gravity is about 2.65, the fracture is shell-like and shows grease luster.
Mainly used as necklaces, bracelets, and sometimes do some small pendants or ornaments such as chicken heart and eardrop, hibiscus stone mainly produced in Brazil, China’s main production areas in xinjiang, yunnan and other places.
8, what call “tiger eyeball stone”?
Tiger eyeball stone is called “wood turning stone” because of its similar appearance to wood.
It is from the mineral composition of sodium amphibole chrysotile, through the geological hydrothermal change appointment, hydrothermal silica gradually replaced the sodium amphibole, into silicified chrysotile, its composition into quartz, hardness of 7, specific gravity of 3.1.
Tiger eyeball stone can be divided into three categories according to color, yellow and yellow-brown and have the effect of the cat’s eye called tiger eyeball stone, blue tone.
Cat eye effect is known as eagle stone, brown and blue spots mixed together as banba tiger eyeball stone.
Tiger eyeball stone market is mainly used as necklace beads and bracelet beads, the main origin in Brazil and Australia.
9,What is dongling jade?
Dongling jade in geology, known as chromium-mica quartzite, hardness 7, specific gravity 2.65, brittle, translucent, uneven fracture.
According to its color can be divided into green dongling stone, blue dongling stone and red dongling jade.Dongling jade mainly produced in India, also known as India jade.
Commonly make necklace bead and bracelet bead, small hang adorn article, also have make put pieces.
10, What is venusite?
Venusite, also known as gold ore or gold ore blende, is a kind of quartzite containing mica or iron oxide mineral flakes, due to the shining light of Venus.
Commonly used on the market for its bracelet beads, necklace beads, or as a seal material.
11,What is crystal?
Crystal is a kind of narrow sense gem, is a very old gem.Its chemical composition is silica.
This is a crystal as transparent as water in quartz minerals.
If purple, tawny or black is formed due to impurities, it is called amethyst, tea crystal and ink crystal respectively.
Special varieties containing acicular or fibrous mineral inclusions are called “hair crystals”.Crystal surface is glass luster, its shell – like fracture grease luster;
Hardness 7, specific gravity 2.66, and has compression and optical properties.Crystal has a wide range of USES, mainly used in jewelry bracelet and necklace beads, also do some small pendants and ornaments.
The crystal is mainly produced in Brazil and Uruguay. The main production areas in China are yangjiao ling in hainan province and donghai in jiangsu province.
Natural crystal is clear and transparent, often containing star-point, cloud or flocculent air-liquid inclusions, and often see microcracks.
Synthetic crystals have no cracks, but often have small bubbles.In addition, the weight of synthetic crystals can be felt in your hands than natural crystals.
Compared with glass, crystal white and more bright dazzling, glass white in a slight suffused cyan, yellow and feeling bright enough;
Crystal hardness is 7, glass is 5.5, can use crystal delimit glass, natural crystal often contains the uneven such as cotton grain, imperfect phenomenon.
And glass because of artificial baking, uniform and no cotton lines, and there are small bubbles, lapping crystal with a cool feeling, glass has a warm feeling.
12,What is a pearl?
Pearl is a round pearl body formed by rubbing and stimulating the extraneous substances put into (or artificially put into) the body of some shellfish in the sea or fresh water.
Its chemical composition is mainly calcium carbonate, pearls can be divided into seawater pearls, freshwater pearls and artificially cultivated pearls according to the production.
By color can be divided into texture base color for white beads, texture base for black beads, variegated beads.
13,What is a diamond?
It is customary to call the diamond of gem grade diamond.It is a crystal mineral formed by the crystallization of a single carbon element under special circumstances, and it is also the only gem mineral composed of a single element.
Gemstones and diamonds (diamonds) are not only hard (mohs hardness 10, more than 1100 times of quartz), with extremely high wear resistance and chemical stability;
Strong luster, not easy to wear after processing, can shine diamond luster for a long time;
It also has a high refractive index (2.42) and a strong dispersion (0.044, the strongest among natural colorless gems).
When the diamond is polished into dozens of small surface, shot into the white light of the diamond, in the refraction process is scattered into monochromatic light, show the luster of the seven-color neon, showing brilliant and glittering and translucent optical effect like water.
This strong dispersion phenomenon is the most precious characteristic of diamonds, which is unmatched by any other precious jade.Therefore, it is known as the “king of gems”.
Diamond mainly produced in South Africa, Australia, Zaire, Botswana, mainly used for making diamond rings, necklaces, earrings, corsages and other ornaments.
14,What are Rubies and sapphires?
Rubies and sapphires are beautiful and transparent corundum. Their chemical composition is aluminum oxide, which should be colorless when pure.
Many contain trace amounts of pigment ions and appear in different colors, such as red with chromium – ruby, blue with titanium and iron – sapphire.
Red and blue treasures are transparent to translucent, glass luster, under the dichroism mirror has obvious polychromatism, hardness is 9, specific gravity is 4;Conchoidal fracture without cleavage;
Under ultraviolet light, rubies have distinct red fluorescence.Sapphires do not fluoresce except in some species in Sri Lanka and Kashmir.
The major ruby producing countries in the world are myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and the major sapphire producing countries are Australia, Thailand, myanmar, Sri Lanka and China.
Red blue treasure is often used as ring face, female corsages, earrings, tie clips and other high-grade jewelry.
15,What is “emerald”?
Emerald refers to the emerald beryl containing chromium, the chemical composition is aluminum silicate beryllium, the crystal is hexagonal columnar, belongs to the hexagonal crystal system.
It is emerald green or thick green, with a specific gravity of 2.6-2.8, hardness of 7.5-8, brittle and easy to break;Transparent, glassy.
Beautiful in color, transparent and hard, it is the most valuable characteristic of emerald.Its main production areas are Colombia and the former Soviet union.Emeralds are often used as ornaments such as ring face, ear studs and corsages.
16,What is “opal”?
The so-called “opal stone” in gemology refers to the gemstone with the effect of cat’s eye.
And any other gem mineral with cat’s eye effect can not be called “cat’s eye” in general, but must be preceded by a mineral name, such as “emerald cat’s eye” or “quartz cat’s eye”.
The chemical composition of the gemstone is beryllium aluminate, and the crystal is columnar or plate-like, which can be brown-yellow, greenish-yellow and other varieties.
Glass luster, hardness 8.5, specific gravity 4.73;Conchoidal fracture with white stripes.
When it has a dense array of oriented fibrous and acicular mineral inclusions or tubular holes in its interior, the cat eye effect results in a bright band like the pupil of a cat’s eye due to the reflection of light.
This band of light moves across the surface of the gem as it is rotated, so it is also known as “play colour”, which is the most important feature of opal.
Opal is often used as ring face, the best opal from the east of Sri Lanka.
17,What is “K gold”?
Jewelry made of pure gold is too soft to be set into a variety of fine designs.
It is especially easy to lose when setting pearls, precious stones and emeralds. Therefore, since ancient times, people have known to add a small amount of silver, copper, zinc and other metals in pure gold to increase the strength and toughness of gold.
To determine the pure gold content of gold is called “gold position”, which is karat in English and generally translated as “open”, or “K” in English.
Therefore, ornaments are also known as “K” gold.Generally, pure gold is called 24K, which means the theoretical gold content is 100%. Therefore, 1K means the pure gold content of gold jewelry accounts for 1/24, about 4.16%.
Our country consumes habit to use 24K, 18K commonly, and in euramerican a few countries commonly use 14K or 12K gold to inlay gem headgear.
18,What are “gold jewelry” and “platinum jewelry”?
All jewelry crafts made entirely of gold and part of gold can be called “gold jewelry”, and gold ornaments made of the precious metal “platinum” are called “platinum jewelry”.
Because platinum is more dispersed in the earth’s crust than gold, it is difficult to extract, so platinum jewelry is more expensive than gold jewelry
19,what is amber?
Species and evaluation of amber.According to the different colors and characteristics of amber in China, the species are divided into golden pearl, blood pearl, insect pearl, fragrant pearl, ling pearl, stone pearl, flower pearl, water pearl, bright pearl, wax pearl, honey wax and red turbine-resin, among which golden pearl is precious and high quality amber.
Amber is now of little value unless it is antique, exquisite artwork or contains biological remains.
The economic value of amber depends on the clarity, shape, size and color of the insect.Strong color and no impurity is preferred.
The best colors are green and transparent red.The most valuable species is the amber wrapped with insects, commonly known as “amber bee”, with insects clear, lifelike, individual large, the number of the best.
It is used to make beads, buddhist beads, carvings, cigarette boxes, sanitary incense and so on.
Jade sapphire has always been a royal favorite, women’s favorite, in the middle of the century, sapphire is the British royal dress in the indispensable decoration.Collection sapphire has what attention point?
Most jade sapphires are blue, but there are a few other colors. sapphire is the general designation of corundum stones in other colors except rubies.Therefore, sapphire is not only refers to the blue corundum gem, it in addition to having a complete blue series, there are like fireworks sunset yellow, pink, orange and purple, and so on, these color series of
sapphire is collectively known as color sapphire.
2. Where is the best jade sapphire
There are not many producing areas of sapphire in the world, mainly including myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Australia, China, etc., but the quality of sapphire is the best in myanmar and Sri Lanka.Depending on the geological origin, it can be divided into two categories: one is sapphire from myanmar, Sri Lanka and Indian Kashmir.The other is jade sapphire from Australia, Thailand and China.Burma and other real estate jade sapphire, due to the titanium color, it is bright blue, containing silk rutile and fingerprint like liquid inclusions.The silk-like rutile inclusions can produce six – or twelve-shot starlight, which is a high quality gem.The sapphire of Australia, Thailand, China produces because contain more iron among them, send color by iron, reason gem color is very dark, the reflective effect of faceted gem is not quite good also, all need to be changed through heating commonly in order to handle ability to use.
3. Is aquamarine a pale jade sapphire
Aquamarine is not a light-colored jade sapphire. In mineralogology, aquamarine is called beryl together with emerald, while jade sapphire is a corundum gem, which has completely different properties.Beryl class has a relatively brittle texture, high temperature easily burst characteristics. sapphire has high hardness, density and refractive index.Aquamarine colors range from pale blue to turquoise island blue, the best being a vivid and pure brilliant blue.Aquamarine is also known as a “luminous gem” because it can shine more brightly at night than during the day.
4. Does the clarity of jade sapphire matter
Generally, the red and jade sapphire have natural plumage and stone lines, the cleaner the higher the value, if there are cracks or visible spots on the surface of the gem is inferior.But the general red, sapphire clarity is not as high as diamond requirements, because it is beautiful in color.The second is to see whether the texture is transparent, the more transparent can reflect the bright colors, and therefore the higher the value.
5. Does sapphire usually burn
Generally, 90% of the jade sapphire market has been through the process of “burning”, the general heard of one time burning, heating treatment, thermal diffusion, meaning that there is originally some pigment in the crystal, through heating and get diffusion, make the sapphire pigment distribution diffusion more uniform.Another method of thermal osmosis to increase the color refers to that there is no pigment in the crystal, and the foreign pigment penetrates into the surface layer under heating and pressure. Sometimes, you will hear the surface heat diffusion and second-degree burning.
6. What size sapphire is worth collecting
What size sapphire is valuable for collection? sapphire, like other jewelry and jade, is one of the many factors that affect its value. Of course, it is not absolute and needs comprehensive consideration from various aspects.If only from carat to measure its value, more than 3 carats of natural sapphire is very valuable collection.
Nowadays, after the sapphire mined in the mining area is cut and polished, the carat weight is generally between 1-2 carat, reaching 3 carat, and the color is royal blue or the natural sapphire of cornflower, it is very valuable for collection.
According to the current mineral volume and mining situation, 5 carat or more natural quality sapphire is very rare, the price is rising year by year.
There are many factors to judge the value of sapphire, including color, transparency, clarity, miscellaneous cracks, carats and other aspects. sapphire with more than 3 carats of natural quality has a high collection value, but the premise is that it is completely natural without manual treatment.
Nephrite (hetian jade) is a kind of single mineral rock composed of microcrystalline aggregate, containing few impurity minerals, mainly composed of tremolite.Its famous producing area is the kunlun mountains, known as the “ancestor of the mountains”, and the hotan region of the xinjiang uygur autonomous region.Nephrite (hetian jade) is produced in the whole kunlun mountain north slope about 1300 kilometers long, with hetian as the center of the narrow strip of kunlun mountain and river jade pu, so the kunshan jade is called “nephrite (hetian jade)”.
Nephrite (hetian jade) is the high-grade jade in jade, and is one of the candidates of China’s national stone.Now nephrite (hetian jade) in the national standard does not have the origin significance, that is, whether produced in xinjiang, qinghai, liaoning, guizhou, Russia, Canada, South Korea, the main component of tremolite can be called nephrite (hetian jade).
Nephrite (hetian jade) has a long history of at least 3000 years in China. It is part of the main content of China’s jade culture and a precious heritage and artistic treasure in the cultural treasure house of the Chinese nation.China is the only country in the history of the world that combines jade and humanity.
1.Moist or oily:
nephrite (hetian jade) with warm or oily as the first characteristic, so as to distinguish is not xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade).Other jade moist and oily can not be compared with xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade).
2.nephrite (hetian jade) color:
white, sugar white, blue white, yellow, sugar, blue, green, ink, smoke green, green, blue and white.We know that xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade) was mainly topaz and white jade before the qing dynasty.Topaz is very beautiful.In fact, no less than suet jade, we should give topaz body.
Hetian materials are divided into seed materials, mountain and running water, gobi materials and mountain materials.
Nephrite (hetian jade) is no longer of origin significance, as a commodity name.Wherever nephrite is produced, the name nephrite (hetian jade) is used uniformly.For example: qinghai produce is called qinghai feed, Russia produce is called Russia feed, xinjiang hetian region produce is called hetian feed, and so on.
2,What kinds of nephrite (hetian jade) are there?
Nephrite (hetian jade) categories are suet white jade, white jade, blue white jade, blue jade, topaz, sugar jade, jasper, moyu.There is also a blue-and-white type recognized by the industry in recent years, which is separated from the type of jet jade.
White jade and white jade
Sheep fat white jade: said the high quality white jade, the color is fat white, but slightly pan blue, cream yellow, fine texture moisture, grease, grain crack less, can have water stone flowers, impurities generally 10% below, sugar color less than 30%.According to the number of sugar color can be further subdivided into: suet white jade, suet white jade.The sugar-colored part of the white jade is 30 to 85 percent.
Bai yu: color is given priority to with white, can slightly suffuse gray, yellow, green wait for tonal, quality of a material is dense and exquisite, grease sex is moderate, visible tuft is cracked.According to the number of sugar color can be further subdivided into white jade, sugar white jade.Sugar white jade is 30 to 85 percent sugar colored.
Green and white jade
Green and white jade: is between white and blue jade varieties, the color is based on white, with grey-green, grey-green, yellow-green, brown, gray and other light – medium tone, translucent or slightly transparent shape, texture fine and dense, grease in general, translucent shape, visible tuft.According to the number of sugar color can be further subdivided into blue white jade, sugar blue white jade.
Blue: the color is blue to deep blue, gray, yellow and green medium or dark, according to the number of sugar color can be further subdivided into blue, sugar blue.
Topaz and sugar jade
Topaz: light to medium different yellow tone, often for green yellow, millet yellow, with gray, green and other colors, according to the number of sugar color can be further subdivided into topaz, sugar topaz.
Sugar jade: as a result of secondary action formation, be stained by iron oxide, manganese oxide reddish-brown, yellow-brown, brown, black brown and other colors, sugar color part accounted for 85% of the overall sample named sugar jade.
Jasper and jet
Jasper: the color is based on green, green, gray green, dark green and other colors.
Jet: the color is gray black or black accounts for more than 30%.Black was more than dye – like, leaf – like, ribbon, aggregation, can be mixed with white or gray, more uneven.
Blue and white
The ink color reaches more than 90 percent of the material known as jet, black and white or white and white and white materials known as blue and white, blue and white and jet a significant difference lies in the proportion of ink and white meat.
3,What influence does nephrite (hetian jade) have on Chinese jade culture?
In ancient times, jade symbolized the noble moral character in the moral concept.In the eastern han dynasty, there are five virtues for the beauty of jade and stone, which is to compare the five physical properties of jade to the five virtues of human beings: benevolence, righteousness, wisdom, courage and cleanliness.Ancient jade ritual functions has been the mainstream of Chinese ancient jades, “six” is an integral part of a feudal etiquette with the jade, with six different shape of jade as a sacrifice, worship, send, the army of jade ritual activities, that is, the rites of commodities “” call” to jade for six, heaven and earth square with courtesy, to day, pale wall with Huang Congli ground, with green, the east, with red Zhang south, with Bai Huli west, to XuanHuang ceremony “in the north.
Xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade) culture has enriched the history of Chinese civilization.Some experts believe that it is of great significance to study the origin and development of Chinese jade to discuss the quality and material of ancient jade in prehistoric times.There are some influential cultures in China, such as hongshan culture, liangzhu culture, lingjiatan culture, yangshao culture, qijia culture, and shijia culture, etc. These cultures are expressed through jade and jade materials, and their sources are important contents of Chinese jade culture research.Yangshao culture and tremolite jade from xinjiang, qijia culture including longshan culture tremolite jade from hetian, xinjiang.The long – term debate and research of scholars and experts have been illustrated by historical materials and evidence of unearthed jade, from theoretical inference and prediction to theoretical update and conclusion.But the debate will go on for a long time.
Looking through ancient Chinese jade wares, the ancestors all over the country picked jade and took jade locally according to their original aesthetic standards based on different geological and geomorphic conditions.With the development and changes of The Times and the continuous improvement of the level of productivity, the jade mining technology has become more and more superb, the range of jade mining has become larger and larger, and people have a deeper understanding of jade.In the north slope of the kunlun mountains, the ancestors found the internationally recognized jade — nephrite (hetian jade) from xinjiang, China.Nephrite (hetian jade) from the perspective of history, or from the perspective of culture, or from the perspective of reality, nephrite (hetian jade) is not only the finest jade in China, but also an important part of Chinese jade culture.
4,How to look at nephrite (hetian jade) ware material?
Material is the primary premise of jade collection, high quality jade is very important for a jade.Ziyu of the same grade is 6-8 times of mountain material.In the market or on the Internet, it is more common to sell skinless mountain or Russian materials, filled and field materials.
Russian makings also belong to mountain makings and the material composition is the same, because out of the mine in Russia and called Russia makings, its price is much lower, the characteristic is the color white but the jade quality is too water namely transparent feeling overweight, the density and the oil quality are all inferior to the authentic and the field child jade makings are good!If the Russian material filled and field sub – materials sold, little experience is difficult to distinguish.
The real suet jade, requires the tremolite content to reach 99%, it is produced in the ice covered glaciers.Not only white and absolutely do not turn over green, its grease degree is particularly high, not the mountain makable that general chroma achieves level of sheep fat or child jade can match.Some old players have been playing jade for decades.Sheep fat jade to obtain the difficulty of high and its rarity, so love jade often find sheep fat jade difficult, difficult on the feeling of the sky.Can say so, also can not buy the refined article yangfat jade.
Now claim the sheep fat jade, in fact most is the high white mountain jade or the son jade, if does not take the skin high white jade is generally more mountain material.YuGong know son He high mountain jade price material several times, must try their best to keep skin in the work.Some to pretend to be zi yu and try to do burn dyed false leather, it is often visible.Whether the skinless jade is ziyu or not depends on the experience and vision of the appraisers.According to the nephrite (hetian jade) of the same grade, the child material is the most valuable, mountain water, mountain material and second.
The same seed with leather is much more expensive than the seed without leather
Hetian jade outside the distribution of a layer of maroon or brown yellow jade skin, so used to be known as leather jade.There are qiupi, asparagus, red, black and other colors, jade artists with a variety of skin color named jade, such as qiupi, tiger, jujube red, sprinkled gold, black skin and so on.Many jade in the world have this color, but not as beautiful as nephrite (hetian jade).The use of leather can produce pretty color jade, natural chengqu, known as DE bao.Hetian zi jade skin in a variety of forms, some into clouds, some veins, some into scattered points.The formation of chroma is secondary.Since ancient times, the price of the same leather-colored sub-material is much more expensive than the price of the non-leather-colored sub-material.The natural and brilliant skin color is the characteristic of nephrite (hetian jade).But false ooze color with leather material is very common ooze color attached to the surface.There is no oil on the outside, and there is no water head, which needs to be distinguished.
There are the following advantages in purchasing leather jade:
1. Ziyu with steel seal (national identification certificate) is uncontroversial and can be sure of its value preservation and appreciation.
2. There is a saying in the line: “the seed is not recognized by the god”.Mainly refers to some high quality mountain material (even Russian material) can be compared with sub-material, and is sold by unscrupulous traders at a high price, but the purchase price is several times far.
So naked jade without skin is more controversial and difficult to determine its value.So some people say: nude jade is controversial, not sure to maintain its value.Nude jade is a black and white photo, while leather jade is a color photo, which gives artists full creative space and people colorful artistic enjoyment.
5,Nephrite (hetian jade) carving process
As far as I know, a piece of natural nephrite (hetian jade), no matter how it is my texture, I will try my best to highlight its advantages, while its disadvantages will try my best to cover up.This is a very high level of jade carving division of technical requirements, jade carving technology is also a lot of exquisite, especially for the quality of jade is not very good jade, in the actual carving is some trouble.For a good nephrite (hetian jade) stone if you do not grasp it well, then do not go to carving, so as not to destroy its value.
In nephrite (hetian jade) carving, the first is “work” and then “material”.
First is the “workers”, if it is a good material, no good workers to carve it, that the value of the jade also to sell at a discount greatly, as the value of jade raw material rise sharply in recent years, good material becomes scarce and become extremely valuable, so the jade carving craft is concise, try to keep the original stone of the same, more concise process more prove the good quality of raw material, is often complex technology sometimes to cover up the shortcomings of raw material, the real good technology can make the value of jade multiply, sometimes working poor again good jade couldn’t sell good price.
Then down is “material”, there is a saying in the jade circle: “material is poor, you are doing fly up is not valuable.”On the image of the importance of raw materials, is also the collection of jade to consider the first element.If the raw materials are poor, it is difficult to improve the value of jade works even if you find first-class masters to design and make.Sometimes the really perfect stuff is worth more than the carving.
As a kind of art collection, jade has been loved by people since ancient times.Nowadays jade already gradually by collect and turn to invest trend, but the jade on the market good and bad are intermingled, can say the jade that has how many quality to be poor sells go out, produced how many collect the error of investment.Likewise, how many high-quality goods sell, also have equal investment to collect is correct.As the saying goes: rare is precious, but often good things are rare, jade is the same.Therefore, it is of great benefit to you to master some tips of jade collection.
6,What effect does nephrite (hetian jade) have?
Ancient medical books said that “jade is the beauty of stone, sweet taste flat non-toxic”, and said that jade is the body’s most abundant energy storage material.Jade is not only used for jewelry, decoration and decoration, but also for health maintenance.Since ancient times, emperors and concubines of different dynasties never left jade for health preservation, while song huizong was addicted to jade, Yang guifei was fond of jade for heat control, and jade was a clever pillow. Ancient emperors liked to use jade as a pillow, and emperors of long life in ancient China used jade pillow for a long time.
The ancient medical classics huangdi neijing, tang Ben cao, shen nong Ben cao, Ben cao gangmu all say nephrite (hetian yu) can “nourish Yin qi, strengthen kidney Yang, remove heat, relieve annoyance and confusion, moisten heart and lungs, help voice and throat, nourish hair, nourish the five internal organs, comfort the soul, thin blood vessels, clear eyes and ears”.
Jade can not only beautify people’s lives, edify their temperament, but also dispel diseases and keep peace.Its products are directly used for health care: jade pillow, jade pad, fitness ball, massager, walking stick, jade comb, has the curative effect of keeping beauty, calming and soothing to human body.Soft jade, hetian jade material can can send gas, throughput, if on the acupuncture point, can stimulate the channels and collaterals, dredge viscera, it can along with the gender and, combined with the body temperature quickly, is located in the wrist dorsal have “endowment”, often wear jade bracelet, can get the long-term benign massage, can not only remove old man blurred vision of the disease, and storage, keep spirit.
Soft jade, hetian jade) fine texture, moderate, has always been pleasant, and its sort is more, each has its own characteristics, including suet jade more because of its features and rarity, touted as the high-quality goods of jade, but with soft jade, hetian jade) known as one of the popular collectibles, step by step and the pursuit of soft jade, hetian jade), the market shows a batch of genuine soft jade, hetian jade).Here are a few rough measures that I hope will help you.
Test the hardness with a knife
Nephrite (hetian jade) mohs hardness reached about 6.5, take a knife in the following uniform generally will not leave traces, if it is glass and lower hardness of jade will leave traces, but now a lot of imitation materials also choose some high hardness of jade, also will not leave traces.
Check the color of nephrite (hetian jade)
Nephrite (hetian jade) only red, blue, black, yellow four categories of color, there are red legends, xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade).But you haven’t seen it, so if you come across a red nephrite, it’s a fake.Red colors range from white to bluish white, yellow from light yellow to dark yellow (including sugar), cyan from light blue to dark blue, and ink from ink to light black
Suet and yellow nephrite (hetian jade) are of high value
The sheep fat jade quality is exquisite, white like coagulate fat, is the red nephrite (hetian jade) in the best kind, how to identify nephrite (hetian jade).Xinjiang is the only region in the world where this species is rare, so it is extremely rare.Nephrite (hetian jade) store.Topaz is also extremely rare, second only to the value of suet jade.The cyan nephrite (hetian jade) has the lowest value, while the cyan nephrite (hetian jade) has a wide range of colors, ranging from light cyan to dark cyan.
See if it’s translucent
In the jade has transparent, translucent, opaque three kinds, and nephrite (hetian jade) is translucent, in the light, nephrite (hetian jade) monopoly.An object that can see through light, but not clearly.Can be aimed at the source of jade, with his hands shaking after the jade, really neolithic (hetian jade) can see that there is a black shadow shaking.
Hear the verdict
Nephrite (hetian jade) because the quality is thick and moist, the pulse is firm and dense, so in the percussion sound crisp, crisp, Beijing nephrite (hetian jade) auction.Can take two identical jade to knock a few times, xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade) price.If the sound is mute, it is not nephrite (hetian jade). The sound of nephrite (hetian jade) is as clear as steel.
Weigh it in your hands
In the purchase, you can measure the same volume of jade with your hands, nephrite (hetian jade) is heavier, more solid, thick and generally heavier than other jade.
Check the texture
Nephrite (hetian jade) texture moist jin run, delicate, mild, and the general situation has a grease luster, nephrite (hetian jade) discrimination techniques.Other jade runze jin run and grease luster than nephrite (hetian jade).Can put jade on the skin additionally, can have a kind of cool feeling, and vitreous product is done not have.
Check the certificate number
Nephrite (hetian jade) the price is more expensive, have a certificate commonly, can make xinjiang nephrite of bureau of quality supervision (hetian jade) or search on the net check whether number is true.
Upload photos for experts and netizens to judge
Now there are a lot of businesses or happy people to provide expert judgment or online judgment, you can take photos from all angles, xinjiang.Upload to the Internet, for expert evaluation, photo must understand.
8,Nephrite (hetian jade) what are the standards and elements of collection?
Many people are infatuated with nephrite (hetian jade) collection, more people invest in nephrite (hetian jade) collection, why?Soft jade, hetian jade is the essence of the Chinese for thousands of years precipitation in our nation’s bone marrow, also has become an important element of our Chinese traditional culture, for thousands of years from the palace minister to literati and advocating the beauty of jade, jade quality is compared to a man’s virtue, so a few thousand to jade culture nourished our countrymen.In today’s modern society, people still admire and wear beautiful jade, and the concept of raising jade and jade has been deeply rooted in people’s hearts.
At the same time, as a country that believes in reciprocity, nephrite (hetian jade) pendants or carvings as gifts have also become a popular way to bring people closer to each other.The character is transparent, gentle, introverted, deeply in line with the essence of traditional Chinese culture, giving people an unforgettable beauty, is a kind of soft breath from the depth of culture, is a kind of historical precipitation, beautiful deposition, do not have a lasting appeal.
People say that gold has a price, jade is priceless, that is, nephrite (hetian jade) collection value, it is not only ornaments, but also can be used as an investment appreciation items.So that the jade collection investment value is also getting more and more collectors and investors recognized and favored.So how do we as investors invest in nephrite?Nephrite (hetian jade) what are the standards and elements of collection?
First look at the material: what is the best nephrite (hetian jade) material?Nephrite (hetian jade) is divided into small jade, mountain material and mountain water material.The color is mainly white, there are pure white, moon white, off-white, cyan white;There are also cyan, bi, sugar, black and yellow.Pure white is the best, black and yellow jade is relatively rare.In particular, the white ziyu processed like refined sheep fat, so called “sheep fat jade”, nephrite (hetian jade) in the boutique.Made of all kinds of jade looks pleasing to the eye, touch a warm feeling, glittering and translucent get out in the light, such as condensed fat, texture, the highest value, is also the most favored by investors and collectors category, can be called nephrite (hetian jade) in the best.How to judge a good jade?1.Color wants positive, cannot have 2 kinds of color to resemble appear, be like off-white, cyan, yellow green.White jade is the standard color is fat white, milk white, litchi white;Green and white and the standard color is pink green, green bean, melon green.2.The product should be moist and delicate, just like fat and oil, and smooth and smooth as baby’s skin.3.The whole is pure, white flawless nephrite (hetian jade) reputation, the whole is pure, no defects, no stone tendon, no crack is the top quality.Yu not cover defect, what is inside and outside is neolite (hetian jade) virtue.
Second, look at the work, a good piece of jade to match the good work, it is said that the golden age of chaos, in today’s stable development of society, people’s living standards are improving, jade investment is at the right time.Nephrite (hetian jade), the first of China’s five famous jade, is more popular among collectors and has become a bright spot in the investment market.The master believed that whether collecting “new nephrite (hetian jade) ware” or “old nephrite (hetian jade) ware”, the value of collection should be judged according to whether the materials of the works are superior, whether the workmanship is fine, and whether the connotations involved are elegant and artistic.If it is to collect ‘ancient nephrite (hetian jade) ware’, two points should be added: 1. Good quality of jade and well-preserved; 2. High cultural and historical value.That is to say, choose to collect nephrite (hetian jade) ware, whether the jade raw materials are superior, whether the work is fine is the most important thing in jade collection.The appreciation of jade depends on its materials and workmanship, so I hope people in the collection and purchase of nephrite (hetian jade), to carefully measure, strive to do not blindly follow the wind, with the least money to buy the most valuable nephrite (hetian jade).In addition to deciding the quality of nephrite (hetian jade), the design and production level is also the key.If you don’t know how to collect or buy first, ask someone else who does.Secondly, if you can afford to buy the works of famous artists, the famous artists do not have to be ancient, the modern works appreciate faster.Nephrite (hetian jade) works by modern famous artists will have more appreciation space if they are cleverly conceived, have novel themes and have unique aesthetic perspectives.
The third;Famous jade carving works collection, “jade do not cut can not implement” this saying, everyone knows the famous saying, although jade is very precious, only after can reflect the real value.At present some neopar (hetian jade) collect lover to be collected in choose and buy the quality that pursues raw material blindly, and ignored the actor or heroine of carver and the culture connotation of design type.This is the biggest taboo in jade collection.Collect contemporary nephrite (hetian jade) collect, want to distinguish what is commodity above all, what is work.There are fundamental differences.Commodities are mass consumer goods that can be produced repeatedly. Without artistic soul, commodities can only be the expression of craftsmanship at best.A good soft jade, hetian jade works, it embodies the creators of cultural knowledge, artistic accomplishment, carve capability, make people in the grade, appreciation, enjoy in the play, especially the masterpiece of jade carving masters and award-winning masterpieces, and every thing is god form of both, are treasures, sculpted, has the very high artistic value.As time goes on, they will become more and more precious.Committed himself to one of the most important must master, from the design of the works to carved from the hand of the master, this work is the true value of the good work, because the master a year, a few pieces, he is very scarce, and the design of the master often very unique, not only has a very high level of carving skills, at the same time, the works of the masters often has a profound connotation of culture and art and exquisite carving skills, it is a spiritual vitality, the combination of art and jade peak state, so that by the master from design to carve all by master hands-on work, appreciation potential is infinite.Extensive and profound jade culture, jade collection, especially nephrite (hetian jade) collection trap a lot, buy nephrite (hetian jade) must be careful, see more, learn more, so as not to cause economic losses.
The fourth;In today’s society, collectors pay more attention to the artistry, ideology and culture of jade, and pay more attention to the expression of artists’ creation personality. Jade carving art really moves from the beauty of appearance to the deep beauty.Hetian itself is very beautiful, jade white waxy and warm the incomparable beauty, history has given its mysterious color, a good work first materials should strive to perfect, on the basis of the material in the design should reflect the beauty of this piece of jade, put more thoughts, the jade culture and the aesthetic feeling of ultra-high, visually more impact, what is beauty?True beauty is only what penetrates the heart and lungs and touches the human soul.A true jade carving master must be able to carve the soul of jade with a carving knife, that is the true art level of the jade carving master.
9,Why nephrite (hetian jade) is classified into seven and eight categories?
Traditional nephrite (hetian jade) classification is generally divided into two series of seven varieties by color, namely, two series of blue and white jade and colored jade.There are two kinds of white jade and blue jade in the blue and white jade series. The colored jade series is divided into five varieties, namely, carbuncle, topaz, jasper, moyu and blue and white jade.
In 2003, the national nephrite (hetian jade) standard (commonly known as the national standard) was issued, which is divided according to the color and texture of nephrite (hetian jade), specifically for the sheep fat white jade, white jade, blue white jade, blue jade, topaz, jasper, mo yu and sugar jade eight varieties.According to the traditional point of view and industry practice, nephrite (hetian jade) classification is based on color characteristics and named, this classification does not represent the quality of nephrite (hetian jade) difference and grade.
Compared with the above two classification methods, there is no difference in the concept of jasper, but there are many differences in the connotation of other jade species, and some concepts will be confused.
One difference: white sheep fat and blue white jade.National standard nephrite (hetian jade) classification in the blue white jade series has four kinds, respectively for the sheep fat white jade, white jade, green white jade, blue jade.Among them, white jade of suet fat points to high grade white jade especially, should be a kind of white jade.Accordingly, white jade of sheep fat is white jade actually big inside small kind, should not stand alone at other 7 kinds.Green white jade is actually also can divide can not divide, according to the traditional standard green white jade is not divided relatively simple, as long as there is a clear line between the green and white line.Even divided meaning is not much, but the classification complex.
Difference two: rare colored jade and concept confusion.Colored jade series, there is no carbuncle in the national standard, because carbuncle few to almost no, can be ignored.In the traditional standard, topaz refers to hetian topaz seed material or gobi material only.National standards of topaz, because of the national standards of neopar jade (hetian jade) the scope of the expansion, xinjiang yecheng, and end, if qiang county and qinghai and other places produced yellow mouth material, xiuyan river grinding topaz, known as topaz.However, the quality of the vast majority of yellow mouth materials can not be comparable with hetian huang yu, which is the difference to be identified when you choose.For example high quality xinjiang huang kou material bracelet price should be in 50-60 thousand, but some shops to price 50-60 million, because from the national standard to identify can be marked into hetian topazol.Hetian topaz is a precious jade species, the real hetian topaz bracelet value must be higher.
Three differences: moyu and blue and white jade discrimination.National nephrite (hetian jade) to account for more than 30%, the color is gray black – black called moyu.A certain amount of graphite inclusions is the cause of color.Black was more than dye – like, leaf – like, banded aggregation, can be mixed with white or gray, more uneven.And the traditional nephrite (hetian jade) to black and white or pure black jade called moyu;Black and white, black and white transition called blue and white jade (referred to as blue and white).Blue and white is the first white jade because there is a black “flower” and named blue and white jade.From the point of view of definition these two kinds of classification method difference is bigger, traditional standard has certain reason, national standard simplifies this.If some textbook says on introduction “and field mo yu cent is whole ink, gather ink and line ink 3 kinds” when, we should clear this suits national standard to classify.
Fourth difference: the concept of sugar jade.National standards of sugar jade as a large category, which is a big difference.National standards of the sugar part of the sample accounted for more than 85%, named sugar jade.What is sugar jade?National standard says “secondary action is formed, be stained by iron oxide, manganese oxide reddish-brown, yellow-brown, brown, black brown and other colors” for sugar jade.The traditional standard does not have the sugar jade category, because in each kind of jade may take the sugar color, the sugar color is regarded as ooze color one kind, but each kind of jade ooze color is many, also cannot distinguish the name one by one.Another reason is that there are not many sugar-colored nephrite (hetian jade) in the traditional standard, while sugar-colored jade is very common in the national standard, such as paoji, ruoqiang and Russian.
Therefore, we should pay attention to the concept confusion and differences brought by different standard classification, and truly grasp the connotation and value of nephrite (hetian jade) variety.
10,Nephrite (hetian jade) seed material characteristics
The most important signs of seed material are its sweat pores, skin color and cracks.Sweat pores are a byword here.Have without sweat pore, it is the true move that identifies true false seed to makings.True seed material, no matter how delicate, its surface, there will be countless fine dense holes, very much like the human skin on the hair hole.The surface phenomenon formed in the natural state is by no means artificial, and can be clearly seen under a ten-fold magnifying glass.It is very effective to use the pores of sweat to identify the true and false seeds.Because there are rolling material above the grinding mark, a scratches, and no natural state of “sweat pores.”
True seed material in river water after thousands of years of erosion and grinding, natural by ooze, it will be in the texture of soft and loose local qinli color, crack in the place of deep texture.This kind of skin color is very natural and is called living skin.Scarlett is one of the important identities of seed jade, hetian seed jade with skin since ancient times as expensive, with small gold seeds, skins, seeds, jujube red one seed, deerskin seed, and pear seeds, is very difficult, but the natural formation rate is only about one over ten less than, though closely pure good seed jade jade do not form, though a lot of seed jade no skin, even if there were, also stars, or in a tiny crack son, known as “white seeds.The color of dermis immerses jade to have administrative levels feeling inside, transition is natural, the feeling of skin and flesh is consistent.The color on the skin should be from deep to light, and the color on the crack should be from light to deep.Hetian seed material skin color of various forms, some into cloud shape, some for the vein shape, some into scattered point shape, the formation of skin color is secondary, since ancient times, the same quality of seed material, have skin color than do not take skin color of the seed jade more expensive.The natural and brilliant color of the skin is the hallmark of nephrite (hetian jade) and is characteristic of the real thing.But false ooze seed material with skin in recent years very much ooze color attached to the surface, the appearance of no oil, no head, more dry, need to pay attention to distinguish.
Seed material in the course of millions of years of erosion collision, 99% with different weight of crack or a few impurities (jade line called crack or tufts).Generally large cracks or more obvious impurities in the work to be modified, and the existence of small cracks, on the premise of not affecting the beauty and firmness of jade, all belong to the normal range.To borrow the words of a jade friend: “hetian seed jade comes from nature, and the defects of natural jade are inevitable. Those who love jade should accept its defects with a broad mind.”Seed material in the course of millions of years of erosion collision, 99% with different weight of crack or a few impurities (jade line called crack or tufts).Generally large cracks or more obvious impurities in the work to be modified, and the existence of small cracks, on the premise of not affecting the beauty and firmness of jade, all belong to the normal range.To borrow the words of a jade friend: “hetian seed jade comes from nature, and the defects of natural jade are inevitable. Those who love jade should accept its defects with a broad mind.”
Picture 1, two white jade bracelets
11,Identification of a pseudo-black skin in nephrite (hetian jade)
Nephrite, or tremolite, is popular for its softness, toughness and purity.Thousands of years of jade culture and history have gradually improved the evaluation system of nephrite.Simply speaking of material, white with small leather material with high value, and produced in xinjiang hotan region of sheep fat white jade material is the most precious.However, in recent years, due to the intensification of mechanized mining, the small material resources in the yushi river basin of xinjiang are gradually reduced and tend to be exhausted.Especially sheep fat jade, a lot of older generation experts think, xinjiang has been less than mining sheep fat jade since a hundred years ago.
Since 2003, the relevant provisions of the state allows all, which is mainly composed of tremolite jade can be called “soft jade, hetian jade”, then to Russia, South Korea, Canada, New Zealand, qinghai province, liaoning province, jiangsu province, guizhou, guangxi, Taiwan, and recently found that deposit in sichuan province, the produce of tremolite are in the market as a “soft jade, hetian jade”.Especially Russia, qinghai, South Korea white jade, took up more than half of the white jade market.Although xinjiang white jade, which has dominated the market for thousands of years, is extremely favored in the market today, its monopoly position is not guaranteed due to production problems.Changes in the market have led to changes in the evaluation system. In recent years, xinjiang autonomous region has issued formal regulations to classify the color of broad nephrite (hetian jade), and yangfat jade has been put back on the market.But right now the sheep fat jade does not represent “jade goes out with field”, also broke even “jade goes out kunlun” bound.
According to the market is defined by the relevant departments of xinjiang as “yangzhi jade” products, yangzhi jade is the main embodiment of the white jade, with some oily, texture requirements.Accordingly, no matter broad jade lover appoints, but what must admit is, a few produce from Russia, qinghai white jade, according to concerned regulation at present can be classified as white jade of sheep fat, especially Russian white jade, “jade of sheep fat” proportion is very high.Of course, in terms of the quality of jade, the current “yangzhi jade” is still the best in the broad nephrite (hetian jade), including nephrite from xinjiang.It is generally believed that Russian nephrite and qinghai nephrite have no small material, that is, Russian nephrite and qinghai nephrite have no material transported by water, but this does not mean that Russian nephrite and qinghai nephrite have no skin.All exposed rocks will be subjected to weathering effects brought by natural conditions such as temperature difference fusion, sunlight exposure and precipitation leaching in geological ages. The common joints and other structural cracks in rocks will lead to the infiltration of some foreign materials, especially iron and manganese oxides. White jade is also inevitable.Weathering in dry environment often leads to loose surface structure of white jade, forming a slurry, while water-rock reaction often leads to deposition of dark minerals such as iron and manganese in the surface and cracks of white jade.Accordingly qinghai, Russia white jade in, occasionally see white or black leather makings.Black leather is considered to be one of the characteristics that distinguish qinghai and Russian materials from hetian materials, although there are some darker skins in xinjiang.Recently, the author met a pair of “black skin” white jade bracelets that can reach the level of “yangzhi jade”. Unfortunately, after testing, “black skin” is made by hand filling.
As shown in figure 1, in the background of high-quality copy paper, two bracelets white parts almost without blue, yellow tone, texture is uniform and delicate.The black skin is similar to the black skin of qinghai and Russian nephrite: the black is distributed along the deep fissure with some brown and yellow edges.The black part of one of the bracelets is perforated, as shown in figure 2.
Figure 2. “black skin” can also be seen in the inner ring of one of the bracelets.
Generally speaking, the majority of nephrite black skin due to the distribution in the cracks and often in the raw material surface depression gully shape, of course, some after cutting the black skin can also be more flat.After polishing and grinding, due to structural reasons, the surface of neolites often shows the characteristic orange peel, which can be recognized by the naked eye in the strongly reflected spot.No matter be the skin of small makings or the skin of qinghai, Russia makings, this kind of orange skin grain is also more common.But the black surface of these two bracelets has a smooth curved surface along the bracelet’s curve — something to be suspected of.
In addition, the luster of most neopite skin is slightly weaker than that of the flesh, especially the neopite that casts highlights, the contrast between the skin and flesh luster is more intense, but most parts of the skin can still be identified as more concentrated spots when the strong light reflects illumination.The black parts of the bracelets, on the other hand, look a bit like old tires — worn and blurry, too.
By zooming in on the black part, it can be very accurately identified that the black part is fake skin.As shown in FIG. 3, black and yellow parts are scattered with a large number of circular bubbles, and the surface parts appear circular pits due to bubble wear.
FIG. 3. A large number of bubbles and circular pits left by the abrasion of bubbles can be seen in the black part
Infrared spectra of the white and black parts of the bracelet were compared, as shown in FIG. 4. The white part shows the standard tremolite spectrum, while the black part shows multiple absorption peaks between 1800 and 1200cm-1, showing organic characteristics.Combined with the phenomenon of a large number of bubbles in the black part, it can be inferred that the black and yellow parts are formed by hot-melt filling of organic compounds.
Figure 4. Comparison of infrared absorption spectra of the white part (blue line) and the black part (red line) of the bracelet
For many collectors, the possession of a fine piece of jade with leather, especially tallow white jade, is a treat.So for a piece of white jade handicrafts, in addition to focus on the quality of the jade of true and false, advantages and disadvantages, the cause of the leather case also need to pay attention to, now you know is better polishing “material” and fake leather dyeing, and introduced in this paper with large organic glue as black phenomenon has not been reported, so hope this article will introduce seed makings nephrite lovers attention and vigilance.
Hetian seed jade black pine crane pendant
Hetian seed jade gold and silver cicada pendant
12,The essence of Chinese jade culture: nephrite (hetian jade)
Rarely can there be a material like neoprene (hetian jade), born with deep connotation and cultural charm.His skin texture is gentle and delicate if coagulating fat, color and gentle and dignified.After exquisite carving dexterity does not lose atmosphere, even if the original stone does not modify at all still can send out charming expensive gas, still can let collectors fondle fondly.The Chinese people prefer implicit, inner beauty, and it is this kind of spiritual stone with zen flavor can best meet the Chinese aesthetic, so throughout the Chinese history of thousands of years, nephrite (hetian jade) has always been the essence of traditional Chinese jade culture.Throughout China for thousands of years, how many romantic figures are also crazy.There is a poem to prove: “snow and ice for the body, fire for the soul, suddenly out of kungang.Recall three emperor zen position, by the xuanbi;A hundred dynasties, more to the green yellow.Will phase wang hou, yu qiao plow reading, die all born pettigrew.The sand blows away the ancient seal on the dungeons and looks at it repeatedly.Faint I also heart taste, dingde with just high fang not.Build a thousand cuts before a great tool;Carefully carved, to avoid the flaw.Ruming, huang zhong destroyed, there is only gao xian national war.With who ask, how much wan wan is this in pei li?”
Hetian seed jade with type maitre pendant
Up to now, culture and collect lovers to nephrite (hetian jade) love does not decrease from beginning to end, all because nephrite (hetian jade) have the beauty of inside collect of that simple, dignified, lukewarm run, implicative that other treasure jade stone place does not have, just like modest gentleman.Nephrite (hetian jade) unique charm in detail lies in its quality “meticulous and chestnut”, that is, very delicate and moist, excellent toughness, easy to sculpture and not easy to break.Its light “wen run and ze”, namely burnish moistens downy, compare inside collect and lasting appeal is long.Nephrite (hetian jade) color is not beautiful jade, no gem bright, but white, red, yellow, bi, sugar, green, ink has its own characteristics.White such as coagulate fat, jianjie delicate white sheep fat for the best, on the red should be red as chicken crest, yellow as steamed chestnut for the best, another bi cui yu.These varieties are especially valuable.Another color such as caramel sugar jade, black as pure lacquer mo yu, if green if white green jade and so on, if the use of these colors when carving will have unexpected artistic effects.Nephrite (hetian jade) another distinctive feature is a secondary mine, commonly known as pu jade, jade seed.In addition to quality and color, the skin of seedjade is often an important factor in determining its value.The cent that skin color skin and stone skin, stone skin is to contain pore colorless original skin.The color skin has the jujube red skin, the black skin, sprinkling gold skin and so on.A piece of color is quality jade if there is a clean gorgeous skin natural value multiplier.If have the skin of a few kinds of color to go up in a piece of jade, or the leather color that USES in carving process is just right also can give a jade article grace many.
Moreover, nephrite (hetian jade) has always been difficult to compare with other jade products in terms of the complexity of production process and modeling style.From this in nephrite (hetian jade) flourishing at the same time also produced a batch of arts and crafts masters.A good design, a good carver can give a good jade touching art life, a good craft can make the slightly defective jade rich connotation.So collect a good jade at the same time we have to consider his process, if the process is not good enough would rather collect a piece of original stone, the original seed raw stone play is also very charming.
In the past ten years, due to the exhaustion of nephrite (hetian jade) resources and the increase of people’s understanding of nephrite (hetian jade), the value of nephrite (hetian jade) has risen rapidly, and the quality of nephrite (hetian jade) is hard to find.As a result of nephrite (hetian jade) the scarcity of products and not repeatability, high quality beautiful and distinctive nephrite (hetian jade) artwork still can not be missed.Today, nephrite collection (hetian jade) has become a fashion, a phenomenon.People with a little culture and status get together no longer to compare famous cars and watches, but to evaluate each other’s neopite (hetian jade) products, which reflects that people not only meet the pursuit of wealth, but also aspire to the sublimation of culture, self-cultivation and taste at a higher level.When relatives and friends enjoy tea and wine, and talk about leisure, love the joy of jade, how happy it is!
13,Deep analysis of nephrite (hetian jade) collection investment eight errors
Beautiful jade comes from ancient times, beautiful jade specially refers to nephrite (hetian jade), thousands of years ago, people took jade as ware, jade as decoration, jade as ceremony, jade as virtue, love jade, love jade, even at life.Since ancient times, it has been said that jade can show spirits, bless peace, is a person’s amulet, is the embodiment of wealth, status, value.Therefore, since ancient times, from the palace to the folk, love jade, appreciate jade, play jade, hide jade ethos has been undeclining, but also drove neolithic (hetian jade) collection investment fever.
The non-renewable nature of nephrite (hetian jade) resources determines its “scarcity is expensive”, and the continuous price rise should be the trend.In particular, after the government issued a ban on mining in October 2007, the reduction of raw materials increased the precious value of hetian white jade.Because the society collects the white jade custom day to flourish and the domestic folk investment channel narrow, causes thousands of troops to rush to the antique jade investment channel.According to incomplete surveys in the industry, about 1/3 of the residents wearing, collecting and investing jade wares in big cities such as Beijing and Shanghai are far more than the proportion of stock, securities and other art collections.As a result of collect hold the return of investment to be discovered by folk gradually, of white jade price rise space still can be very big.
Although nephrite (hetian jade) appreciation potential is huge, but nephrite (hetian jade) collection and investment field, there are still many misunderstandings.Ruan wenfeng, a famous jade collector and connoisseur in central China, holds the following view: “of neoprene (hetian jade) players, 10 out of 10 have suffered losses.”Tianke hall nephrite (hetian jade) as nephrite (hetian jade) the upstream of the industrial chain of original stone suppliers, and if qiang has nephrite (hetian jade) mining source, engaged in nephrite (hetian jade) mountain material mining, sales for ten years.Also witnessed the recent 10 years neolithic (hetian jade) collection investment market from the downturn to the hot process.In the upper stream of nephrite (hetian jade) raw stone supply circle, tianketang nephrite (hetian jade) Mr. Guo is known for his unique views and dare to speak the truth.He pointed out that for ordinary nephrite (hetian jade) lovers and investors, the collection of investment nephrite (hetian jade) to be very cautious.He thinks, at present nephrite (hetian jade) investment is collected bound to exist some misunderstanding and misunderstanding need to be clarified.
Here are eight major mistakes in nephrite (hetian jade) collection and investment today:
1, only heavy origin, do not distinguish jade material
A lot of people think arrived nephrite (hetian jade) place of origin can buy authentic nephrite certainly (hetian jade), in fact not so.Because the price difference is apparent, in the producing area of a few authentic jade makings, illegal businessman often sells the jade article that structure is very close, similar local jade makings makes to seek huge profits.And people often believe that the jade articles and materials purchased from xinjiang must be local jade.If be in xinjiang, people often buys nephrite (hetian jade) next of kin — — the handicraft of white jade of Russian bai yu, qinghai jade, shout greatly afterwards be duped, the reason is to buy a house with real xinjiang native nephrite (hetian jade) the price clinchs a deal.Because they are similar to nephrite (hetian jade) in structure and composition, it is difficult to distinguish them in appearance.Many even bought white dongling jade.To qinghai, it is white watwa stone rather than qinghai straw.That is to say, to the origin of the purchase is not necessarily produced from the local nephrite (hetian jade), there are many “close relatives”.This needs the customer to lay a solid foundation, the careful choice.
2, only heavy seed material is not heavy mountain material
Seed material is also known as seed jade or uncut jade.In the broadest sense, it refers to a kind of egg-like secondary nephrite (hetian jade) seed material formed by weathering and peeling off the mountain material and running water material from kunlun mountain primary ore and erosion of snow and ice mountain torrents of billions of years.Hill makings is produced in the kunlun mountains of the original mineral material, seed makings is evolved from the mountain, a image of the metaphor, “hill makings is mother of the seed”, mountain and seed material from the appearance of the difference is obvious, the former is smooth, the latter angular, mountain into seed material is due to natural factors such as earthquake, changes in the earth’s crust change, soft jade, hetian jade) the original mineral material (material), tumbled down from the mountain is washed by water and carry hundreds of thousands of kilometers, the soft edges and corners have been polished.
Strictly speaking, seed material is better than mountain material. Due to being washed and carried by water for hundreds of thousands of kilometers, loose edges and corners with poor density have been erased, leaving behind the essence. River water is a tool for carrying and polishing.
In nearly a decade, soft jade, hetian jade) seed makings has always been very popular, part of hot money are flocking to the soft jade, hetian jade) investment collection market, lead to soft jade, hetian jade) prices, of course, this is just a soft jade, hetian jade) prices higher one of the reasons, and seed makings is less, and private mining mining in recent years, the government from the perspective of protecting the environment, expressly forbidden behavior such as overexploitation, and factors such as the increased cost of production and so on.Nephrite (hetian jade) price of a road roller coaster surge, directly encourage illegal businesses to directly buy mountain materials with modern means of processing seed materials, and in late specially someone bought block shape good white jade mountain materials, directly transported to hetian, hami, kashgar and other places, for processing seed materials.Some inland go to the businessman of xinjiang, know clearly is the seed makings of artificial processing, but in the drive of interest still hesitate heavy gold buys, because such original stone is transported to Beijing, Shanghai, suzhou, guangzhou wait for a place, value wants to turn a few times even ten times.This is good, at least the nephrite produced in xinjiang (hetian jade), although it is mountain material, if you buy other stones like jade processed into seed material, it is more than worth the loss.
High quality nephrite (hetian jade) mountain material
Seed material is expensive, lack of resources and difficult to distinguish between true and false, often tens of thousands, tens of millions, little inattention will be when, another ordinary collectors away.Some early investors began to focus on the high quality neolithic (hetian jade) mountain materials, high quality neolithic (hetian jade) mountain materials carved out of the finished product can be comparable to seed materials, whether oil, density or hardness, and seed materials compared to the same, and the price is much cheaper than seed materials.Day cosette hall soft jade, hetian jade) perennial spot supply soft jade, hetian jade mountain is the original stone, has become the nation’s largest soft jade, hetian jade mountain, one of the original stone material supplier for dealing with jade plant, jade workshop of guo said: “instead of collection quality general seed makings, collect a few more high quality soft jade, hetian jade mountain material”.
Both nephrite (hetian jade) and seed materials are gifts from nature and should be cherished.
3, only attracted to the gas, do not know the process
People generally believe that when they go to a famous jade field, they can buy the jade wares made here.Take suzhou as an example. Su gong is famous all over the world, especially for small jade ornaments.However, due to the developed jade processing industry and frequent technical exchanges in suzhou, the local jade products sold in suzhou are mixed.Take artisans as an example. There are not only the traditional school born and raised in the jade factory, but also the skilled hands who once worked in Beijing, Shanghai and other professional units. There are more artisans from xinjiang, henan and anhui who brought their own workers to suzhou.Because of different masters and different techniques, their products are purchased and sold by shops in guanqian street or wenmiao temple.Take xinjiang for example, there are quite a few finished products are carved in nanyang.Be interested in collecting, should be familiar with the characteristics of local technology, can be handy.
4, on the rules of neat, do not know the mechanism of manual
With the wide application of computer engraving, mechanical sandblasting, ultrasonic pressure, edm technology, stable process, batch production, short time, drum polishing and sealing wax after the end of a large number of jades to the market.Due to its low cost, jades are especially suitable for commemorative and celebratory purposes and are favored by most organizations of commemorative, celebratory, award and welfare activities.If jade lovers only choose one or two pieces to wear or enjoy, they can do without.But collectors should be wary of mechanically made jades for profit.Because cookie-cutter, already not be traditional craft, the space of appreciation is not big certainly.In addition, collectors need to pay attention to a piece of jade after using modern technology to shape and then apply manual, slightly modified, leaving some traces of carving to confuse people’s eyes, especially some famous master works more attention.Otherwise, even experts can slip up.
5, only heavy leather, not heavy jade
Jade has a long history of making fake skins.But the false skin that resembles emerald as a result of age is long, transmission is wide, already very hard muddle have experience person.It is worth noting that nephrite class of false skin has a growing trend.The false skin that modern craft does, not be to pursue of course “gu feng gu yun”, pretend to be seed makings however earn huge price difference.At present, many places in the country’s antique, jade market to see the false red skin shallow carving.Some collectors do not pay attention to this, only heavy skin color is not heavy flesh quality, often buy some false skin seed material but mix unconsciouretly, cost money, be deceived.
6, only buy hetian white jade, do not buy other white jade
At present, nephrite (hetian jade) collection is getting more and more hot, the center focuses on hetian white jade.Even some players are obsessed with non – and – field seed material not to see the degree.The result of “a river running to the three gorges” has been extreme.On the one hand, it accelerated the demand for hetian white jade, promote hetian white jade more valuable;On the other hand, artificially raising the value of hetian white jade, making it reach an astonishing high price, inducing counterfeiters to pass off the fake as the real, shoddy, fraudulent phenomenon is more frequent.After many people are duped, also dare not look to qinghai white jade, Russian white jade again, dislike to white jade also rise even.
Qinghai materials, Russian materials, Korean materials are nephrite (hetian jade) category, not hetian white jade does not hide the misunderstanding is caused by the overall understanding of white jade.But really understand jade, love jade, cherish jade collectors and jade friends or more love China native xinjiang produced nephrite (hetian jade), they think xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade) yue pan run, this statement is right.But the real nephrite (hetian jade) produced in xinjiang is restricted by resources and mining conditions.If you see good Russian material, Korean material can also be collected.In fact, Russian white jade, qinghai white jade, Korean white jade and hetian white jade belong to nephrite, and the mineral composition and chemical composition are basically the same.
7, only the ancient not today
At present, nephrite (hetian jade) collection and investment market, there is a trend to attach great importance to ancient jade, especially qing dynasty jade, and even think that the value of ancient jade is much higher than today’s jade.
In this regard, tianke hall neolithic jade (hetian jade) Mr. Guo said, the previous generation of jade, because it has its historical value, cultural value, research value, so for hundreds of years has been the object of people’s pursuit, is also the jade collection species of the jiaojiao is understandable.
However, he believes that the value of jade is largely measured by heavy materials and heavy industry, and the length of history is indeed a factor in the value of collection, but it is in a secondary position compared with materials and workers.
Because a piece of excellent raw material is hard to find, and a master sculptor is thousands of miles to choose only to produce, the combination of the two created perfect, also produced value.Jade is different from some works of art, the value of raw materials accounted for a large number of factors, some works of art raw materials value low added value of art, for jade is never considered ancient valuable, good materials, good work, representative, historical value, research value of ancient jade is really valuable, on the contrary, really not valuable.
In the qing dynasty, he says, the soft jade, hetian jade carvings regardless of the size of eighty percent is the green jade, and many carvings for precious little material can’t choose, so with crack lock, blemishes, carvers influenced aesthetically pleasing, and because the technology is not developed, mining conditions hardships, transportation difficulties, and so on reasons, in the annual tribute in the qing dynasty jade expected few hotan jade suet, mostly green jade.
Look from carving technology, the current from the design concept, processing equipment, carve art far more than our predecessors, and at present the country to collect treasure jade both from the aspects of raw material use, art design, carving process, which one is unable to achieve, former is “tiangong cup” prize every year work and everything than his predecessors, both are fine, treasures, and contemporary soft jade, hetian jade boutique whether artistic quality, manufacturability, and possess the quality of materials collection, appreciation, and store of value function, also represents the fourth highest level during the height of the development of Chinese jade.
8, only love and tian white jade, disdain with his jade (sugar white jade, green white jade, jade)
With good seeds, good work, can play in the market, including the “open the door” of the hotan white jade is becoming less and less, some collectors lost in confusion.They blindly advocate and field white jade, and the same generation of white jade green white jade, jade and jasper are dismissive, that class is not high.The idea is simple.
The key to the quality of hetian nephrite lies in its “run”, “waxy” and “oil”.Hetian white jade and sugar white jade, blue white jade, blue jade, jasper out of the same door, the main mineral components are not big difference, color is only part of it.The color is like clear sky, the color is like green water, the color is like brown sugar, the texture is warm and moist, the craft is excellent the sugar white jade, the blue white jade, the blue jade, the jasper is equally lovable.In hetian white jade resource shortage, raw material shortage today, good sugar white jade, blue white jade, blue jade, jasper mountain material also has collection value.Besides, these jade materials are also facing the situation of resource exhaustion, and the space of resource appreciation is no less than hetian white jade.
In fact, in the Palace Museum collection of qianlong play chant jade, blue and white jade, blue jade accounted for a large part, there are furnishings, ritual ware, wenwan and so on, and even most of the jade seal is made of blue jade.The value of these jade articles is inestimable.
Therefore, as a mature investor in jade collection, the appreciation of jade should be considered from many aspects and multiple perspectives, comprehensive evaluation.Jade material is precious, blue jade, jasper, green white jade is also worth enjoying.
Anyhow nephrite (hetian jade) collect investment is a knowledge, it is to need “jade friend” people get from long-term practical experience, see more, learn more, ask more, nature collects nephrite (hetian jade) will be easy much, also can pay tuition fee less.
14,Nephrite (hetian jade) industry will be more tolerant
Nephrite (hetian jade) has always been a popular material in the market, but due to the economic environment, the overall collection market sentiment is depressed, so nephrite (hetian jade) market trading situation is also relatively depressed.From xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade) market information alliance recently released by the market by the end of July 2013, the medium, the soft jade, hetian jade (jade) son of material prices again in about 20% down, high-end, top and super soft jade, hetian jade (jade) is expected to price the amplitude, but nearly a month volume appeared rising trend.The reason is that after more than a year of wait and see, some collectors believe that nephrite (hetian jade)(white jade) material price has the demand for investment value, and the price is a little loose, so began to slowly into investment;And low – end nephrite (hetian jade) market trade is still decreasing.
This situation just shows that the investment market from impulse to rational, from quantity investment to quality investment, that investors and consumers are more rational, to standardize nephrite (hetian jade) market also has a positive role.Combined with xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade) market information alliance soft jade, hetian jade (jade) issued by the material classification and grading standard and quarterly published a soft jade, hetian jade (jade) son material market has on the national market has a certain guiding significance, further promoted the benign soft jade, hetian jade market healthy and orderly development.For the vast number of investment collectors and consumers have a standard and market reference value range, the heart has the bottom, also have investment and collection of reference basis.
In order to better popularize nephrite (hetian jade) investment and collection knowledge, xinjiang nephrite (hetian jade)(white jade) sub-material grading standard and legend, has completed the first draft, is widely listening to the opinions of experts and scholars.
In recent years, nephrite (hetian jade) industry inclusive strong, qinghai materials, Russia materials, South Korea materials, Canada materials are a large number of materials into China, white jade with jade, jasper and moyu also broke the previous low-priced situation, since 2010 all the way up, has been more and more by the vast number of investment collectors and consumers love.It can be expected that the prices of these typical and characteristic nephrite (hetian jade) varieties will continue to rise in the future, as will the prices of middle and high-end nephrite (hetian jade)(white jade).
Nephrite with more than 90% tremolite content will be phased out of the regional concept, and the national name nephrite (hetian jade).Nephrite from different producing areas (hetian jade) as long as the quality is the same, the raw material output form is the same, will be listed in the same grade, the same investment and collection value, and from the perspective of geology, can not only use the region to name a kind of jewelry jade, this point nephrite (hetian jade) industry is gradually changing this concept.The forthcoming “legend” will give a detailed introduction of nephrite (hetian jade) materials of different origins from different characteristics, and evaluate the value of jade based on the value reference quotation issued in each season. It is believed that it will promote the nephrite (hetian jade) market in the future.
Usually people say “white jade” refers to the Chinese famous jade “nephrite (hetian jade)”, among which the most valuable is “sheep fat white jade”, which is fine, warm, white as mutton fat, occupies an indispensable position in China’s nearly ten thousand years of jade culture.Speaking of nephrite (hetian jade), “priceless” such a key word in my mind, it is true, nephrite (hetian jade) consumption are in the ten thousand yuan level;At present, the high-quality seed material resources have almost exhausted, the existing seed material in the hands of speculators circulation, the price has risen.The personage inside course of study thinks, because hype neolithic jade (hetian jade) the price has certain bubble, but its long history culture precipitation assures collect value not to decrease.
Nephrite (hetian jade) cost ten thousand yuan
Hu shuji: China is the only country in the world history that integrates jade and human character. Chinese people love jade, which is related to advocating moderate and introvert character. Jade also represents the personality characteristics that Chinese people admire.China’s nearly ten thousand years of jade culture mainly nephrite (hetian jade) as the carrier, it is the Chinese nation’s cultural treasure house of precious heritage and artistic treasures, with extremely deep cultural deposits.Nephrite (hetian jade) belongs to nephrite. Compared with ordinary jade, nephrite has the biggest advantage of being delicate, dense and oily. It is not easy to be broken after falling, and it emits grease and luster.
The higher the grade nephrite (hetian jade), the whiter the color, the finer the texture, and the stronger the grease luster.In fact, in addition to white jade, there are sugar jade, jasper, topaz, etc., especially topaz is quite rare and beautiful, its value is no less than white jade.On the market, high-grade nephrite (hetian jade) can reach 1 gram the high price of ten thousand yuan;Ordinary pendant prices are also in the thousands of yuan to ten thousand yuan, almost no several hundred yuan a nephrite (hetian jade).Basically, nephrite (hetian jade) consumption is in ten thousand yuan level.
The price of seed has increased by 50% annually
Distinguish between huxuenian: according to the source, soft jade, hetian jade) rough stone into the seed material, hill, mountain water and gobi, seed makings is the most valuable, it was found in stream beds, and by the river on both sides of the mountain mountain original material falls into the river, after billions of years the water flushing, where the original stone loose away by running water, leaving only the hardest part, which is the best and strongest, the most warm essence oily luster.As a result, most seeds are oval in shape with rounded edges.On the other hand, the stones on the mountain are very angular.As the high-quality goods that passes through nature elaborate burr, the price of seed makings has certain rise every year, price rise can amount to 50% on average.Market circulation of large mountain material prices are relatively low, small increase.At present, the seed material resources are almost exhausted, now the river bed can hardly dig out new seed material, can only be sold in the hands of the seed material owners, things to rare for expensive, nephrite (hetian jade) price is hyped up, so Fried under some price bubbles do exist, but good nephrite (hetian jade) seed material is still worth collecting.
Nephrite is the English name for Nephrite, sometimes Jade.Chinese name is called jade or hetian jade, because nephrite was first produced in hetian, xinjiang, also known as “hetian jade” or “xinjiang jade”.
Nephrite is generally slightly transparent, with a hardness of 5-6, a refractive index of 1.61-1.62, and a density of about 3.0g/cm3. It can be divided into mountain material and small material according to the state of production.
Divided by color, mainly divided into white jade, sapphire, jasper, mo jade, topaz, flower jade.
• white jade:
contains more than 95% tremolite and is white in color according to color and texture!
Cent for commonly: white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of white of fish bone, fish bone, brown rice, chicken, among them with show white of sheep fat is best.
Show off-white or the bai yu that contains light grayish green attune, be like white not white, be like green not green, main body still shows white normally, for hetian jade in 3 class jade material, economic value is inferior to bai yu slightly.
iron oxide infiltrates into tremolite to form red skin shells of different shades. The deep red color is “sugar jade” and “tiger skin jade”, and the white color is slightly pink and called “pink jade”.
• sugar jade and white jade or plain jade often form double color jade material, can make “qiao color jade”.
Everything has its own growth process. Jade chinese culture has formed a very complete system at present, so what kind of development process did it go through at the beginning?Let’s find out.
Based on archaeological data, we can know that jade already existed in every aspect of people’s life in the neolithic age.
However, the jadeware excavated by today’s archaeological excavation was found to be of low artistic value after careful appreciation, which may be due to the lack of experience in making jadeware at that time, so the shape of jadeware created was very simple.
In addition, jade carving technology and tools are limited, so the jade itself is mostly without decoration.
2,Xia, shang and zhou dynasties
By this time, jade became a symbol of ritual ware and political status, and its shape and decorations were gradually enriched.
As the development of jade has gone through a period of time, jade manufacturing techniques have been improved.Coupled with the development of culture, people’s ability to appreciate art has been greatly improved, so they have a deeper understanding of how to beautify the jade itself.
For example, jade chinese products in the shang and zhou dynasties were often engraved with patterns such as dragon, phoenix and cloud patterns.
3,Spring and autumn period and warring states period
During the spring and autumn period and the warring states period, jade was already the carrier of the dissemination of Confucian ideology and culture.During this period, there were more than 30 jadeware varieties, including bi, cong, zui, jue, pei, huan, tube, bead, etc. Some scholars classified them into four categories according to their USES: ceremonial jade, funeral jade, decorative jade, practical jade.
According to this can clearly feel that this period of jade production more exquisite, delicate, but also more skilled grasp of the type.
So it can be seen that in this period, both the appearance of jade and its cultural value have been further enriched.
4,Han, wei and jin dynasties
Generally speaking, the jade wares of wei, jin, southern and northern dynasties were much inferior to those of the han dynasty.During the wei, jin and southern and northern dynasties, jade chinese culture was in a transitional period from classical to medieval evolution.
During this period, jade wares were mainly used for decoration and practical appreciation, and began to go to the folk. The carving style was characterized by simplicity, simplified use and simple decoration.
5,In the tang and song dynasties
For the history of jade chinese wares, the jade wares of tang and song dynasties opened a new chapter.
Starting from the tang dynasty, with the transformation of historical background and the entry of culture and art from central Asia and west Asia into central China, jade gradually lost its mysterious and sacred aura and entered ordinary people’s homes.
In the song dynasty, due to the rapid development of urban economy and the rise of the civil class, the commercialization and secularization of jade wares were accelerating.
Since the tang dynasty, the selection of jade has mostly used hetian jade.Jade patterns during this period have been more complete, carving lines are very delicate and distinct.
Since the tang dynasty, flower patterns have been used on jade wares, carving flowers similar to real objects.
6,The yuan dynasty
The jade chinese wares of yuan dynasty were developed on the basis of inheriting the jade wares of song dynasty, liao dynasty and jin dynasty.
Yuan-dynasty jade materials to hetian white jade, green white jade based on the processing technology is representative of the multi-layer hollow out.
In the yuan dynasty, the technique of multi-layer hollowing has been developed to the extreme. In addition to carving out double-layer patterns on the plane, it can also be carved on jade materials with five or six layers of flowers, and each layer has distinct layers with strong perspective effect.
7,During the Ming and qing dynasties
The jade chinese wares of Ming and qing dynasties are in various shapes and forms.Especially in the qing dynasty, the jade workers were good at drawing on the achievements of painting, carving and arts and crafts, and the collection of Yin line, Yang line, hollow out, pretty color and other traditional works and the great achievements of the artistic styles of all dynasties.
In addition, it has absorbed the influence of foreign art, mixed it with other forms, and created and developed the treatment of jade with strong technicality and decoration, which has distinct characteristics of The Times and high artistic attainments.
Since the reform and opening up, jade carving industry has been growing.With the development and progress of technology, hetian jade carving techniques have been greatly improved, jade carvers can be completely unrestrained, will imagine the perfect display of things in the works.
The value of hetian jade itself plus the artistic value of craft technology has reflected considerable collection value in today’s society.
Nephrite is a collection of certain gem-valued silicate minerals in the amphibole family, such as tremolite and phallite.Nephrite is not the name of mineral, it is made of small amphibole mineral crystals woven together in a fibrous form to form a compact aggregate, fine texture, good toughness.
Nephrite comes in a variety of rich colors, all with a greasy sheen.Hetian is an important producing area of nephrite in xinjiang, China. Nephrite there is known as hetian jade and was designated as China’s national jade in 2003.
Nephrite is mainly tremolite.Color: according to color can be divided into white jade, blue jade, green white jade.White person can be called white jade, its name has white sheep fat, white pear, white ivory, etc., especially with fine texture, luster moisture white sheep fat is the most precious.Sapphire color dark green, grey-green, color uniform, fine texture.Between the white jade and the blue jade is the white jade.
There are also traditional names for color features.Such as “topaz” : light yellow to beeswax yellow, yellow flash green, more light color, rare strong, strong color is extremely valuable, high quality is not inferior to sheep fat white jade;”Jasper” : dark green, dark green or dark green, pure color is preferred.”Moyu” : black, black and white, black and white color can be used for qiao color works;”Sugar jade is’ like sugar red ‘. Sugar jade often has a gradual transition relationship with white or white jade, and the best color is blood red.
Nephrite is called true jade, nephrite can be divided into white jade, blue jade, blue white jade, jasper, topaz, jet, sugar jade, flower jade and so on.China is one of the famous producing countries of nephrite, mainly produced in the kunlun, tianshan and altun regions of xinjiang.They all have waxy luster, pure milky white, from the past dynasties of jade, jade in China to nephrite, ancient nephrite in China is known as the traditional jade.
Nephrite common color has white, gray, green, dark green, yellow, black wait for color, majority is opaque, individual translucent, have vitreous burnish, the breed of nephrite basically is to divide by color different.According to the introduction of zhuoyixuan hetian jade, the most beautiful white jade such as white sheep fat, said the sheep fat jade.Blue jade is gray to white, some people will be known as blue white blue jade.Jasper is green or dark green, sometimes see black dirty spots, is containing impurities such as chrome spinel minerals caused by.When there are many impurities and black, it is a precious jet.Topaz is also a more precious variety.The blue jade has the sugar water yellow skin shell, the existing person calls it “the sugar jade”, the white takes the pink person someone to call “the pink jade”, the tiger skin color is called “the tiger skin jade” and so on.
Nephrite producing area is more, because different producing areas of nephrite due to different causes, there are obvious differences in quality, therefore, the market has been the actual classification of nephrite producing area phenomenon.Such as xinjiang hetian jade, qinghai nephrite, Russian nephrite and so on, often called xinjiang material, qinghai material, Russian material, Korean material and so on.
Hetian jade in xinjiang is mainly distributed in the deep kunlun mountains in the south of tarim basin, starting from andali tagh and araz mountains in the east of tashkurgan county in kashgar region in the west, and ending from sangzhutagh, tikiliktagh and liushtagh in the south of hetian region in the middle and ending from sulamuningtagh in the north of altun mountain in the south of zhemu county in the east.In this range, there are numerous nephrite primary deposits and ore spots in the 3500-5000m high mountains, and hetian jade materials are also produced in the relevant rivers, the main rivers are karakesh river and yulong kashi river basin.People living on both sides of the two rivers have been digging and picking jade in the valley for generations.
The main mineral composition of hetian jade in xinjiang is tremolite, which contains trace amounts of amphibole, diopside, serpentine, chlorite, and tetrahedrite.The primary ore bodies occur in and near the contact zone between the intermediate acid intrusive and the magnesium-bearing carbonate rocks in the Precambrian metamorphic rock series, along the bedding, the tectonic fracture zone and the contact zone.The ore bodies are mainly clumps, capsules and lens-like, and the quality is good in marble, mainly white jade, blue white jade, blue jade and black jade.The secondary mine is mainly produced in the riverbed gravel in the form of water erosion, with fine texture, mild and dignified, which makes hetian jade not light, not frivolous, not bigoted, but deep and thick, which is the quality that Chinese people pursue and praise.
Xinjiang hetian jade not only has a long history, rich color, complete variety, mountain material, small material, mountain water and gobi material, the best quality, is the best nephrite.It is also the earliest bridge and link between xinjiang and the mainland.The earliest camel caravans on the “silk road” carried hetian jade instead of silk. Therefore, the predecessor of the “silk road” should be the “jade road”.