Nephrite is a collection of certain gem-valued silicate minerals in the amphibole family, such as tremolite and phallite.Nephrite is not the name of mineral, it is made of small amphibole mineral crystals woven together in a fibrous form to form a compact aggregate, fine texture, good toughness.
Nephrite comes in a variety of rich colors, all with a greasy sheen.Hetian is an important producing area of nephrite in xinjiang, China. Nephrite there is known as hetian jade and was designated as China’s national jade in 2003.
Nephrite is mainly tremolite.Color: according to color can be divided into white jade, blue jade, green white jade.White person can be called white jade, its name has white sheep fat, white pear, white ivory, etc., especially with fine texture, luster moisture white sheep fat is the most precious.Sapphire color dark green, grey-green, color uniform, fine texture.Between the white jade and the blue jade is the white jade.
There are also traditional names for color features.Such as “topaz” : light yellow to beeswax yellow, yellow flash green, more light color, rare strong, strong color is extremely valuable, high quality is not inferior to sheep fat white jade;”Jasper” : dark green, dark green or dark green, pure color is preferred.”Moyu” : black, black and white, black and white color can be used for qiao color works;”Sugar jade is’ like sugar red ‘. Sugar jade often has a gradual transition relationship with white or white jade, and the best color is blood red.
Nephrite is called true jade, nephrite can be divided into white jade, blue jade, blue white jade, jasper, topaz, jet, sugar jade, flower jade and so on.China is one of the famous producing countries of nephrite, mainly produced in the kunlun, tianshan and altun regions of xinjiang.They all have waxy luster, pure milky white, from the past dynasties of jade, jade in China to nephrite, ancient nephrite in China is known as the traditional jade.
Nephrite common color has white, gray, green, dark green, yellow, black wait for color, majority is opaque, individual translucent, have vitreous burnish, the breed of nephrite basically is to divide by color different.According to the introduction of zhuoyixuan hetian jade, the most beautiful white jade such as white sheep fat, said the sheep fat jade.Blue jade is gray to white, some people will be known as blue white blue jade.Jasper is green or dark green, sometimes see black dirty spots, is containing impurities such as chrome spinel minerals caused by.When there are many impurities and black, it is a precious jet.Topaz is also a more precious variety.The blue jade has the sugar water yellow skin shell, the existing person calls it “the sugar jade”, the white takes the pink person someone to call “the pink jade”, the tiger skin color is called “the tiger skin jade” and so on.
Nephrite producing area is more, because different producing areas of nephrite due to different causes, there are obvious differences in quality, therefore, the market has been the actual classification of nephrite producing area phenomenon.Such as xinjiang hetian jade, qinghai nephrite, Russian nephrite and so on, often called xinjiang material, qinghai material, Russian material, Korean material and so on.
7,Hetian jade in xinjiang
Hetian jade in xinjiang is mainly distributed in the deep kunlun mountains in the south of tarim basin, starting from andali tagh and araz mountains in the east of tashkurgan county in kashgar region in the west, and ending from sangzhutagh, tikiliktagh and liushtagh in the south of hetian region in the middle and ending from sulamuningtagh in the north of altun mountain in the south of zhemu county in the east.In this range, there are numerous nephrite primary deposits and ore spots in the 3500-5000m high mountains, and hetian jade materials are also produced in the relevant rivers, the main rivers are karakesh river and yulong kashi river basin.People living on both sides of the two rivers have been digging and picking jade in the valley for generations.
The main mineral composition of hetian jade in xinjiang is tremolite, which contains trace amounts of amphibole, diopside, serpentine, chlorite, and tetrahedrite.The primary ore bodies occur in and near the contact zone between the intermediate acid intrusive and the magnesium-bearing carbonate rocks in the Precambrian metamorphic rock series, along the bedding, the tectonic fracture zone and the contact zone.The ore bodies are mainly clumps, capsules and lens-like, and the quality is good in marble, mainly white jade, blue white jade, blue jade and black jade.The secondary mine is mainly produced in the riverbed gravel in the form of water erosion, with fine texture, mild and dignified, which makes hetian jade not light, not frivolous, not bigoted, but deep and thick, which is the quality that Chinese people pursue and praise.
Xinjiang hetian jade not only has a long history, rich color, complete variety, mountain material, small material, mountain water and gobi material, the best quality, is the best nephrite.It is also the earliest bridge and link between xinjiang and the mainland.The earliest camel caravans on the “silk road” carried hetian jade instead of silk. Therefore, the predecessor of the “silk road” should be the “jade road”.