The art era of collecting Chinese crafts
Where the era of economic prosperity, art will usher in explosive growth, and then the emergence of a prosperous collection.Let’s take a look at the top five collections in Chinese history.
1,contemporary era (from 1970s to today)
ART items: ceramic embroidery jade carving
Marked by the establishment of the Chinese collectors association in 1992, China entered the fifth collection climax, which was also the most popular and prosperous period for the formation of the collection craze in Chinese history.National peace and prosperity, sheng shixing collection, is the contemporary collection of the formation of the background.The “salaryman collector phenomenon” appeared in this period is a unique cultural phenomenon with Chinese characteristics in the history of world collection.Because the east and west have always been the subject of the collection, are literati or upper-class aristocracy, ordinary people are less enthusiastic about the collection of antiquities.
Beijing panjiayuan antique market
This and before 4 times collect the distinction of climax to depend on much, no matter be the person that participate in number or the current reserve of artwork on the market or current money, it is ancient times a few times.On collect big kind on, contemporary collect except inherit qing dynasty to come between the republic of China year with “antique calligraphy and painting” it is the collection with two big traditional and comprehensive kind outside, still much collect big item: namely “today is played”.So-called “play now”, namely contemporary creation, production of calligraphy and painting crafts, such as new calligraphy and painting, new ceramics, new jade, new imitation Ming and qing furniture, new bika, new purple sand pot, new bamboo and wood tooth Angle carvings and so on.
Sotheby’s auction site
The biggest difference between the contemporary collection and the past dynasties is that the ancient collection is dominated by playing antiques and ancient calligraphy and painting, while the contemporary collection goes hand in hand with playing antiques, ancient calligraphy and painting and playing “today’s playing” and playing “today’s painting and calligraphy”. Even the works of living calligraphers and painters are much higher than those of famous calligraphers and painters who have passed away.The formation of contemporary collection craze is more characterized by investment and speculative collection, marked by commercial collection, while traditional self-cultivation collection has been marginalized.But true antique collectors are still the protagonists of the contemporary world.
At the same time, in the modern art market, due to the spread of western culture, foreign auction houses enter the Chinese market, leading to a variety of art transactions in domestic galleries, auction houses and other situations, making the modern art market present a different situation from the traditional one, and the whole art market tends to be more standardized and globalized.
Fun fact: stars also love collecting
In recent years, large and small in the shooting field, often can see the figure of the stars of the show business.Some materials show that, in the collection of the group, in addition to real estate owners and overseas investors, celebrities have become a new force in the collection of the new rich, such as wang gang, zhang tieling, haiyan, wang zhongjun, feng xiaogang, zhang hanyu, Chen daoming, Chen luyu and other figures, let the scene more starry.
Such as national treasure inside the watch in the “national treasure” will cover your nose and mouth abro ho-shen wang gang, in recent years, wang gang doesn’t act, he presided over a collection show that even a fire, as a host of wang gang, also contains a lot of pieces, these babies are mainly concentrated in the bird cage, chinaware, antique.From the very beginning of bird cage collection, to today’s collection of the most porcelain, the home of the rich collection of wang gang still from time to time to visit Beijing pan home stalls.It is said that the largest collection of wang gang is porcelain, followed by calligraphy and painting, including works of Ming and qing dynasties as well as modern and contemporary masterpieces.There are Ming and qing dynasty furniture, jade and other bamboo and wood carving miscellaneous.Wang gang thinks all the time, collect not necessarily the game that rich person plays.Some collectors after more than ten years of panning, finally a set of old version of the comic strip “romance of The Three Kingdoms” to save the whole, the joy is no less than in the international big bang spent thousands of dollars to win a big pot of blue and white.This makes everyone happy again.He even privately made it a rule not to take the show for three or four months each year in midsummer and midwinter, to free up more time for taobao.
2,The republic of China in the late qing dynasty
ART items:Porcelain, bronze ware, bamboo and wood ivory carving, calligraphy and painting, ancient books
The heat wave of collecting in the late qing dynasty and the early republic of China was the most recent and the last before the collapse of Chinese feudal dynasty.Against the backdrop of the turbulent times of internal and external troubles in the late qing dynasty, the collection craze in the late qing dynasty and the early republic of China was like a revival, which composed a sad and magnificent movement for the fall of the feudal dynasty.
At the end of the qing dynasty, the manchu dynasty was on the verge of collapse.The last emperor puyi to appreciate the name of things, so that his brother brought out many famous paintings, in order to maintain the expenses of the small court to the bank mortgage inventory of kiln ware.Many eunuchs steal palace antiques sold, the decline of wang sold palace relics.Because of the emergence of antique sellers and buyers, the antique market formed a group, so in the late qing dynasty, Beijing liulichang antique market was once prosperous, and Japanese and European antique dealers looked for business opportunities.
Historical pARTos of the antique market at the end of the qing dynasty and the beginning of the republic of China
In the early years of the republic of China, Shanghai five road (now guangdong road) antique market is also thriving, Shanghai beach famous “luwu company” is the export of antique big business.During this period, the mainstream collection items of traditional Chinese literati and literati were still popular, such as gold, stone, stele, calligraphy and painting. Japanese and European antique dealers were keen to purchase China’s imperial kilns from the song dynasty to the Ming and qing dynasties and stone Buddha statues in the past dynasties. Therefore, it also led local compradors, capitalists, doctors and lawyers to collect porcelain and antiques.This period is the real mature period of Chinese folk antique market.
The fourth collection craze is mainly due to the increase of external demand and the relative reduction of domestic demand, because in the late qing dynasty, under the intrusion of western powers for many times, the people were destitute, and our artworks were looted by westerners and exiled, which can be seen in museums all over the world.During the republic of China, there were four famous childe, zhang xueliang, zhang boju, pu dong and yuan hanyun.These four people were collectively known as the “four childe of the republic of China”. They were very elegant and loved collecting. A series of collectors such as pang yuanji, zhang daqian and wu hufan emerged in the south.With the dominance of these big collectors, the market was booming.
Chinese ShouCangShi from wei jin to tang and song dynasty popular collection and northern song dynasty to the southern song dynasty popular calligraphy and painting collection, through the gradual formation of the concept of the late Ming dynasty antique high antique miscellaneous time, gradually in the late qing dynasty during the period of the republic of China has no major popular sports collection, but in the aggregate, and all the collection collection can be classified into two categories: namely, antique calligraphy and painting.“Antiques”, including porcelain, bronze, bamboo and ivory carving and other miscellaneous artifacts collection;“Calligraphy and painting” includes ancient Chinese calligraphy and painting, stele, ancient books and other paper collections.
Fun: broke his back just to collect
Zhang boju is recognized as the most obsessed collector among the “four great talents of the republic of China”.In order to collect calligraphy and painting at the sale of property, and wang wei spy struggle.
At that time, a very precious Chinese painting is facing the danger of leaving abroad, zhang boju immediately after that contact with the Palace Museum, hope the Palace Museum will spend a lot of money to buy it.But it was rejected by the Palace Museum.Can’t, zhang boju in order to avoid this national treasure flow abroad, reluctantly sold the 220 acres of homestead.But was targeted by wang wei spy, also kidnapped him, let the family pay to ransom.Did not think of zhang boju would rather be torn up rather than ransom, has been in the standoff, until the spies concede a step, lower the ransom, to be saved.The prince, who has devoted his life to the collection, has in some ways made a contribution to the preservation of the country’s cultural relics.
3,The qing dynasty
ART items: porcelain, jade, calligraphy and painting
The art market in the early qing dynasty was dominated by calligraphy and painting.With the development of The Times, in the middle and late qing dynasty, tablet inscriptions and ancient books were gradually known to the public, which injected new blood into the art market dominated by calligraphy and painting.Qing dynasty will be the han stele worship if the gods, so stele collection has become a ART spot.In the middle and late qing dynasty, the art market also rapidly completed the development process from scale to maturity.
Art collections are generally dominated by antiques.The “antiques” as we know them today began to be called in the qing dynasty (1616-1911), and were called “gu dong” before that.The kangxi, yongzheng and qianlong periods of the qing dynasty were the peak of the development of the art market.
The golden age of kang-qian was the longest period of the golden age of the province in Chinese history, which lasted for a hundred years. It can be said that the whole 18th century, from 1700 to 1800, was the best period in history.
The development of the art market in the qing dynasty could not do without the attention of the rulers.In the qing dynasty, the art market is a social aspect, but also a reflection of cultural content.Liang qingbiao, gao shiqi, anqi and other major figures who liked collecting in the qing dynasty brought vitality to the painting and calligraphy market in the qing dynasty.
Tang libai on the balcony post liang qingbiao old Tibet
During the qing dynasty, not only the rulers occupied an important position in the art market, but also some “suppliers” played a role in promoting it.Although there were a lot of literati in the qing dynasty, their life was very poor and they had no conditions to create works. At this time, some big businessmen who respected literati in the qing dynasty would appear as “providers” to provide conditions for those literati to create paintings.In this case, the art market in the qing dynasty also had enough calligraphy and painting works in circulation, there will not be less than the demand for the situation.
Gu yingtai — the essence of natural history
The most famous classic of the early qing dynasty is the drama theorist li yu’s “casual love accidentally sent • machine play department”, focusing on the appreciation of literary and playful;Gu yingtai’s the essence of natural history is a collection of antique works, twelve volumes are divided into stele, calligraphy and painting, bronze ware, kiln ware, inkstone, lacquer ware, strange stone and other appreciation.In addition, the essence of natural history evaluated the historical and cultural status of stele inscription, calligraphy and painting, bronze ware and porcelain in the history of Chinese antiques and artifacts, and had an influential influence on the collection of later generations of literati who mainly pursued the “golden stone stele inscription”.
Fun: draw pictures of others and speak your own words
When it comes to qianlong, what he can’t avoid is his “playing screen pattern”, but regardless of the artistic level of his inscriptions, his painting poems are an effective way to investigate his thoughts and feelings.Unlike other painting poems which focused on the artist’s spirit, qianlong’s painting poems had a strong sense of intervention.
Qianlong hanfu portrait
As the ruler of the central plain, qianlong and his royal family needed “elegant” han culture, but they were not willing to be assimilated by it.While physically occupying a large collection of ancient paintings in the imperial palace, qianlong added his own wishes to the paintings.These paintings originally contained the spirit of intellectuals, giving way to the emperor’s own good, and even these paintings have become the carrier of the emperor’s will.According to the author place sees, when qianlong reads a picture, its thought, viewpoint and original picture form huge contrast, nothing is better than landscape painting.Qianlong’s change of the theme of “seclusion” of literati landscape painting is embodied in the “imperial” painting poems of landscape painting of wen zhengming.
The graph is qianlong QianYin, according to “the qianlong treasure serval” records, qianlong seal 1000 bulls, commonly used more than 500.
4,The Ming dynasty
ART items: Ceramic, bronze, miscellaneous
Capitalism sprouted after the middle of the Ming dynasty.As late as the middle of the Ming dynasty, in addition to the general painting and calligraphy traders, in suzhou, jiaxing, nanjing and other cities where industry and commerce developed and humanities gathered together, some independent painting and calligraphy shops appeared, and the market has become the main place for private collection of artworks.After the middle leaves of the Ming dynasty, the status of private art collection jumped to the top, surpassing the internal government collection and occupying an absolute advantage.
The Ming dynasty was the heyday of the calligraphy market.Ming dynasty painting and calligraphy trading generally by the hands of dealers, market operation, price level is clear, rising trend is more obvious.At the end of the reign of emperor jiajing, the leading families all over the country began to collect calligraphy and painting antiques. Among them, jiangnan was the most active place with a large number of calligraphers with profound artistic attainments and a large number of wealthy businessmen and tycoons gathered together.At the same time, a large number of professional painters flooded into the market to sell paintings and books as a way of making a living, among which shen zhou, wen zhengming, tang Yin, qiu ying and others who were the “four families of the Ming dynasty” were the most prominent ones.For example, tang Yin has a poem: “don’t try the golden Dan, don’t sit in meditation, don’t plow the fields for businessmen.Get up and write on the green hill to sell, do not make the family build evil money “the calligraphy painter that a few are official in the north also unwilling and doleful, also set foot in the market, add large quantities of franchising calligraphy and the calligraphy and painting businessman that mount a character to walk in market upstream shuttle, had the effect of market intermediary.As a result of these factors, the calligraphy market experienced an unprecedented period of prosperity.
Although the collection of literati paintings was popular in the Ming dynasty, the collection of curios and sundries became one of the most influential collection items at that time.Ming “long qing” after the switch, a large number of precious wood, rhinoceros horn, ivory imports from overseas and imported enamel craft from overseas increasingly influence, antique miscellaneous craft produced celebrities.
A sundry collection is like a corral: a basin for gathering jewels, jewels, or treasures.Odds and ends, also known as odds and ends in old curio custom.Curio category inside, besides pottery and porcelain, can offer the craft that begin to play to collect, include bronze ware, jade, furniture, embroider to taste etc., can call miscellaneous.Miscellaneous collection of the most types, shape and system of the most strange, the most refined technology, the most wide range of the charm of endless appreciation, unlimited potential.Miscellaneous collection, fun in a “miscellaneous” word.
Ming xuande blue and white fish kui
In the Ming dynasty, due to the development of porcelain is also very prosperous, porcelain miscellaneous is sought after by collectors.In 2017 annual auction clinchs a deal in the top 10 porcelain, this call by sotheby’s specialist “jintong king 盌”, as early as in 1963 has been at the Tokyo national museum exhibition, after more than 50 years not seen in the market, the site for hk $65 million or, in the end for hk $202 million dropping the hammer, clinch a deal for hk $229 million, by sotheby’s race.
The most famous ancient books of the Ming dynasty are dong qichang’s “antiques 13”, cao zhao’s “ge gu yaolun” and wen zhenheng’s “changwu zhi”.From what dong qichang said about the essence of appreciating and playing antiques (later called antiques, and now called antiques), the Ming dynasty should be the laying period of the theory of plaything changzhi that “appreciation of ancient things can lead to virtue and collection can become talent”.
Fun fact: one man owns half of the Palace Museum
A disciple of the years of the republic of China, historian Chen yinque WengTongWen plunged into the national Palace Museum warehouse, found XiangYuanBian in which leaves a mark on his collection of calligraphy and painting, is a mark on his word “jing”, or “ink forest people”, and according to the contemporary writer Zhou Lvjing early wide thousand to the coding sequence of, the beginning and the end of the book to each work or four border position.The former is very easy to identify, but also easy to emerge in an endless stream of fraud cheats take advantage of the loophole, make a pile of fakes to confuse the world, only really master the code secret of the latter, is to have a gold key into the treasure house of xiang’s collection.Following these clues, professor ong tong wen restored the lost collection catalogue and calculated the total number of xiang’s calligraphy and painting collections to be more than 2,190.
Xiang yuan bian seal, about 110 square
Weng tongwen said that the collection of calligraphy and painting of the Palace Museum amounted to more than 4,600 pieces according to the record of calligraphy and painting of the Palace Museum.
How good is his collection?We come to a column names: collection of wang xizhi, b, huai su, his life running-penmanship melts former people, c, su shi, huang tingjian,, Zhao Meng ð « ¯ calligraphy name card, such as gu kaizhi, wang wei, li kung-lin, bei, Zhao Mengjian, Zhao Meng ð « ¯, NiZan, huang gongwang, wen Ming, qiu yingGu kaizhi the figure of goddess luo rhapsody, wang xizhi’s “line of script, character primer”, qiu ying han GongChunXiao figure “, “and 1”, Zhao Meng ð « ¯ “autumn magpie China map” and so on have been placed in a dayIn the tianlaige of xiang yuanbian, there were not only paintings and calligraphy that shocked the world, but also bronzes, porcelain and even Musical Instruments.
5,The song dynasty
ART items:stone, calligraphy and painting, ink stone, bronze
The song dynasty was a period of great prosperity for Chinese painting.Palace painting, scholar-bureaucrat painting and folk painting formed their own systems, and at the same time influenced, absorbed and penetrated each other, which made the painting of song dynasty present a colorful situation.The development of commerce in the song dynasty also greatly surpassed that of its predecessors. Towns and cities flourished, and paper money appeared and was widely used.Based on this social situation, the art market in the song dynasty developed unprecedentedly.
The song dynasty was a convergent society, which had a gathering effect on culture.In the art market of the song dynasty, the trading forms of painting and calligraphy were diversified, including three main forms: store trading, market trading and pawnshop.These forms adapt to different groups of buyers and sellers and trading conditions, which are both flexible and applicable. At the same time, they are of great benefit to the prosperity of the painting and calligraphy market.Today’s almost “noble game” of art sales, in the song dynasty as well.
This kind of pomposity was absolutely inseparable from the vigorous promotion of culture by the current ruler song huizong. He not only created a “thin and golden body” himself, but also influenced and drove the art boom, leading to the prevalence of painting and calligraphy creation and collection.First, the government set up an art academy, and only outstanding painters were appointed to the academy.At the same time, a good cultural atmosphere was created. At that time, painters had a very high status in society.In the song dynasty, paintings had not only economic value but also political value.
The stone in the song painting
But in the aspect of collecting strange stones, the scholars in the field of stone appreciation think: wei and jin dynasties were the obscure period of appreciating and playing strange stones;The tang dynasty was the time to appreciate the formation of taihu stone.The song dynasty was a prosperous period for the appreciation of lingbi stone. Especially, mi fu, a calligrapher of the song dynasty, summed up the key points for the appreciation of lingbi stone, namely “wrinkle, thinness, leakage and penetrability”, which had an impact on the history of stone appreciation activities after the song dynasty in China for nearly a thousand years.Su dongpo, a great calligrapher and poet of song dynasty, also put forward the concept of “ugly stone”.Zheng banqiao, a great painter of qing dynasty, further put forward the essence of appreciating ugly stones: “ugly and handsome”.
The bellatrix stone
The above example is to illustrate that the literati of ancient China were already enjoying the rare stones a thousand years before other critics of the collection thought that the first collection craze of the northern song dynasty was formed.Therefore, the first collection ART period formed by scholar-officials in Chinese history should be the period from the jin and tang dynasties to the northern song dynasty.
Fun: huizong period would be a high risk period for shipwreck
Song huizong most like strange flowers and stones, for this, also set up a special flower and stone “scraping department”, responsible for the strange flowers and stones collected from all over the country, a ship ship to the capital.The ships in charge of transportation, ten ships in a group, are made up of one class.
It is said to be the flower stone class
It was either the towering old trees or the outsize stones that caught the eye of emperor huizong.To this end, the miners had to build a big ship. As a result, the stones were brought into the capital.But emperor huizong of the song dynasty lavishly rewarded those in charge of collecting and transporting goods.Because of this, those who can not live, or embrace the dream of wealth, all riveted strength, looking for strange flowers and stones.Once, in order to dedicate an ancient tree to huizong, the ship was temporarily rebuilt and the tree was transported into the capital.Can be on the road, encountered the wind and waves, branches and ship intertwined together to cause the sinking, the whole ship people are not spared.This shipwreck was but one of many.